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Monthly Archives: February 2020

First Hollow Stem update – 2/28/2020

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8” or the diameter of dime) of stem below the developing grain head (full explanation). To give you a point of reference, the average FHS date over the past 20 years at Stillwater is March 6.

The latest FHS results from our forage trials in Chickasha (Table 1) and Stillwater (Table 2) are listed below. In Chickasha, all varieties except for Doublestop CL Plus have have passed the 1.5 cm threshold. In Stillwater, all varieties have passed the 1.5 cm threshold. We have had a fairly warm winter and plenty of moisture in the soil, which may have hastened plant development and the progress of FHS as compared to the 20-yr average.

The Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor and the updates we provide give an indication of the FHS stem conditions in a particular area. However, because of the number of factors that can influence when FHS occurs, it is extremely important to check for FHS on a field-by-field basis

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/19/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/18/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

First Hollow Stem update – 2/26/2020

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8” or the diameter of dime) of stem below the developing grain head (full explanation). To give you a point of reference, the average FHS date over the past 20 years at Stillwater is March 6.

The latest FHS results from our forage trials in Chickasha (Table 1) and Stillwater (Table 2) are listed below. Almost all of the wheat varieties at Chickasha and Stillwater have passed the 1.5 cm threshold.

The Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor and the updates we provide give an indication of the FHS stem conditions in a particular area. However, because of the number of factors that can influence when FHS occurs, it is extremely important to check for FHS on a field-by-field basis

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/19/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/18/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

First Hollow Stem update – 2/21/2020

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8” or the diameter of dime) of stem below the developing grain head (full explanation). To give you a point of reference, the average FHS date over the past 20 years at Stillwater is March 6.

The latest FHS results from our forage trials in Chickasha (Table 1) and Stillwater (Table 2) are listed below. Almost all of the wheat varieties at Chickasha and Stillwater have passed the 1.5 cm threshold.

The Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor and the updates we provide give an indication of the FHS stem conditions in a particular area. However, because of the number of factors that can influence when FHS occurs, it is extremely important to check for FHS on a field-by-field basis

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/19/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/18/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

First Hollow Stem update – 2/18/2020

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8” or the diameter of dime) of stem below the developing grain head (full explanation). To give you a point of reference, the average FHS date over the past 20 years at Stillwater is March 6.

The latest FHS results from our forage trials in Chickasha (Table 1) and Stillwater (Table 2) are listed below. Most of wheat varieties at Chickasha and Stillwater have passed the 1.5 cm threshold.

The Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor and the updates we provide give an indication of the FHS stem conditions in a particular area. However, because of the number of factors that can influence when FHS occurs, it is extremely important to check for FHS on a field-by-field basis

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/19/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/18/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

First Hollow Stem update – 2/14/2020

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8” or the diameter of dime) of stem below the developing grain head (full explanation). To give you a point of reference, the average FHS date over the past 20 years at Stillwater is March 6.

The latest FHS results from our forage trials in Chickasha (Table 1) and Stillwater (Table 2) are listed below. Few wheat varieties at Chickasha and Stillwater have reached or passed the 1.5 cm threshold.

The Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor and the updates we provide give an indication of the FHS stem conditions in a particular area. However, because of the number of factors that can influence when FHS occurs, it is extremely important to check for FHS on a field-by-field basis

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/19/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/18/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

Army Cutworms Reported in Some Wheat and Alfalfa Fields

This article was written by Tom Royer, Extension Entomologist and IPM Coordinator and Kelly Seuhs, Associate Extension Specialist.

Several people, including Lanie Hale, Rob Anderson, and Mike Rosen of Wheeler Brothers and Area Extension Agronomist Heath Sanders have reported possible army cutworm activity. These reports are based on direct observations and noticeable crow and blackbird “gatherings” in some wheat and alfalfa fields in areas of western Oklahoma. Infestation levels were at the “caution” stage at this time and caterpillars measured ¼ to ½ inches.

Army cutworms tolerate cold and feed throughout the winter months. Adult army cutworm moths migrate to Oklahoma each fall (August through October) from their grounds in the Rocky Mountains.  They seek bare or sparsely vegetated fields (like a newly prepared field ready for wheat planting, or a field that was “dusted in” and had not yet or just emerged, or a newly planted alfalfa stand). The eggs hatch soon after deposition.  A producer might see different sizes of larvae in a field due to the long migration period. Army cutworms feed throughout the winter and molt seven times before they turn into pupae in the soil.  Most larvae will have pupated by mid-late March. Adult moths begin emerging in April to fly back to the Rocky Mountains to spend the summer.

Army cutworms can severely damage wheat, canola, and newly planted stands of alfalfa if not controlled. Cutworm damage often goes unnoticed through much of the winter because the caterpillars grow slowly and don’t get big enough to cause noticeable damage until temperatures warm in the spring.  One early indication cutworm presence in a field is the gathering of blackbirds and or crows that seem to be actively feeding. It becomes important to check the fields for cutworms before they cause damage and stand loss.

Figure 1. Wheat stand loss from army cutworm. Figure 2. Cutworm damage to canola

Sample a field by stirring or digging the soil to a depth of two inches at five or more locations.  The cutworms will be “greenish grey”, and will probably curl up into a tight “C” when disturbed. 

It is better to control army cutworms when they are small (½ inch long or less). Army cutworms are very susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides. At this time of year, an insecticide application can be combined with a late winter top-dress nitrogen application.  Suggested treatment thresholds for army cutworms in wheat are 2-3 worms per row foot when conditions are dry and 4-5 per row foot if moisture is adequate. Current recommendations for army cutworm control in small grains are listed in CR-7194, Management of Insect and Mite Pests in Small Grains

It is better to control army cutworms when they are small (½ inch long or less). Army cutworms are very susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides. At this time of year, an insecticide application can be combined with a late winter top-dress nitrogen application.  Suggested treatment thresholds for army cutworms in wheat are 2-3 worms per row foot when conditions are dry and 4-5 per row foot if moisture is adequate. Current recommendations for army cutworm control in small grains are listed in CR-7194, Management of Insect and Mite Pests in Small Grains

The suggested treatment threshold for cutworms in canola is 1-2 per row-foot.  Current recommendations for control of army cutworms in canola are listed in CR-7667, Management of Insect and Mite Pests in Canola.

In newly seeded alfalfa, the threshold is 1-2 larvae per square foot. In established alfalfa fields, the threshold is 2-4 larvae per square foot and should be adjusted based on the size of the caterpillars (2-3 per square foot if caterpillars are more than ½ inches, 3-4 per square foot if less than ½ inches). Current recommendations for control of army cutworms in alfalfa are listed in CR-7150, Alfalfa Forage Insect Control.

Wheat Disease Update – 13/02/2020

This article was written by Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

This is an early season update to summarize a few items that have come up during this week. To start however, I need to repeat that this past fall and winter have been amazingly lacking in diseases. The Diagnostic Lab only received a few wheat samples during the fall, none of which were found to be associated with a pathogen/disease. Causes included low pH, nutrition, and/or environment. This lack of disease still seems to be the predominate scenario. Around Stillwater, I was not able to find any rust or powdery mildew in any of the trials I examined this week. Additionally, it appears as though foliar disease is absent in south Texas as well as indicated by Dr. Amir Ibrahim (Regents Professor, Small Grains Breeder/Geneticist, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX) who indicated to me that, “It has been really quiet here. We have not seen stripe or leaf rust so far. I doubt the former will be an issue this year since it has not established yet and it is already getting warmer. However, I expect to see heavier leaf rust in mid-April if it continues to be this warm.”

Hence, it appears that early season stripe rust and leaf rust should not be a major concern in Oklahoma. In contrast, leaf spot diseases (especially tan spot) should be watched for if you have wheat planted into wheat residue. Josh Anderson (Senior Research Associate, Noble Research Institute, Ardmore, OK) found tan spot in no-till wheat plots planted into wheat residue near Burneyville in far south-central OK (Figure 1). Tan spot can be damaging to seedling wheat especially when it occurs in emerging spring wheat in northern states. However, tan spot also can be damaging to winter wheat if infection is severe in the spring as plants are coming out of winter dormancy. Often an early season fungicide application is used to control not only tan spot but also early season stripe rust and powdery mildew. Such an early season application (late February/March) will not provide protection from leaf rust later in the season (April/early May). If you do have wheat planted into wheat residue, I highly recommend scouting for the presence of not only tan spot, but other early season foliar diseases such as Septoria and Stagonospora leaf spots, powdery mildew, and early season stripe rust. If any of these diseases are seen as severe in late February or March, applying an early application of a fungicide may be beneficial. Keep in mind however, that the timing for an early season fungicide application does not coincide with the optimum timing for top-dressing with fertilizer. If it is likely that two applications will be used, I recommend making the first application with a lower cost generic and reserve the second application for a higher priced premium fungicide. For a photo guide to wheat diseases, go to: http://dasnr22.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-11682/E1024%20Wheat%20Disease%20Identification.pdf

Figure 1. Leaf spotting of wheat due to tan spot on wheat growing in a no-till field near Burneyville, OK. Notice the small, tan spot present in many of the lesions as indicated by the arrows. [Photo credit: Josh Anderson, Noble Research Institute, Ardmore, OK]

For more information on fungicide applications, see: CR-7668 (Foliar Fungicides and Wheat Production in Oklahoma) and PSS-2138 (Split versus Single applications of Fungicide to Control Foliar Wheat Diseases)

First Hollow Stem update – 2/5/2020

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8” or the diameter of dime) of stem below the developing grain head (full explanation). To give you a point of reference, the average FHS date over the past 20 years at Stillwater is March 6.

The latest FHS results from our forage trials in Chickasha (Table 1) and Stillwater (Table 2) are listed below. Few wheat varieties at Chickasha and Stillwater have reached or passed the 1.5 cm threshold.

The Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor and the updates we provide give an indication of the FHS stem conditions in a particular area. However, because of the number of factors that can influence when FHS occurs, it is extremely important to check for FHS on a field-by-field basis

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/19/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/18/19. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.