About Me

Amanda De Oliveira Silva

Amanda De Oliveira Silva

I have served as an Assistant Professor and Small Grains Extension Specialist at Oklahoma State University since August 2019. I believe that close interaction with producers is vital to understand their production strategies and to establish realistic research goals. My program focuses on developing science-based information to improve the agronomic and economic viability of small grains production in Oklahoma and in the Southern Great Plains.

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Considerations to Make before Planting Wheat this Fall – Wheat Disease and Pest Update – 09/07/2021

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist and Tom Royer, Extension Entomologist

Planting date: Much of the winter wheat sown in Oklahoma is used as a dual-purpose crop. In such a system, wheat is grazed by cattle from late fall through late winter/early spring and then harvested for grain in early summer. In a grain-only system, wheat is generally planted in October, but in a dual-purpose system wheat is planted in early to mid-September to maximize forage production. Planting wheat early significantly increases the likelihood that diseases and insect pests such as mite-transmitted viruses, the aphid/barley yellow dwarf complex, root and foot rots, and Hessian fly will be more prevalent and severe. For more detailed information on planting date and seed treatment considerations on wheat, see CR-7088 (Effect of Planting Date and Seed Treatment on Diseases and Insect Pests of Wheat).

Mite-transmitted virus diseases: These virus diseases are transmitted by wheat curl mites (WCMs) (Figure 1), and include wheat streak mosaic (WSM), high plains disease (HPD), and Triticum mosaic (TrM). Of these, WSM is the most common. WCMs and these viruses survive in crops such as wheat, corn, and sorghum as well as many grassy weeds and volunteer wheat. In the fall and spring, WCMs spread to emerging seedling wheat, feed on that seedling wheat, and transmit virus to the young wheat plants.
Given this disease cycle, it is easy to see several factors that determine the incidence and severity of these diseases. First, controlling volunteer wheat and other grassy weeds that serve as alternative hosts for the mite and the viruses is imperative to help limit these diseases. Often an infected field of commercial wheat is growing immediately adjacent to a field left fallow during the fall and winter (Figure 2). The fallow field contained abundant volunteer wheat and grassy weeds from which WCMs carrying Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) spread into the commercial field. Wheat infected in the fall will be severely damaged the next spring. Wheat infected in the spring also is damaged, but not as severely as wheat infected in the fall. Hence, it is imperative to do yourself and your neighbors a favor by controlling volunteer wheat and grassy weeds in fields left fallow – especially, if they are adjacent to commercial wheat fields.
A second factor linked to the severity of these mite-transmitted virus diseases is planting date. Early planting dates associated with grazing provides for a much longer time period in the fall for mites to spread to and infect seedling wheat. Planting later in the fall (after October 1 in northern OK and after October 15 in southern OK) and controlling volunteer wheat are the two practices that can be employed to help manage these diseases. It is extremely critical that volunteer wheat is completely dead for at least two weeks prior to planting wheat because WCMs have a life span of 7-10 days. Thus, completely killing or destroying volunteer wheat for a period of at least two weeks prior planting will greatly reduce mite numbers in the fall.
The incidence and severity of these mite-transmitted virus diseases as affected by planting date can be illustrated by the number of samples that tested positive for WSMV and HPV during each of the last three years. In 2017, which was the last year mite-transmitted virus diseases were prevalent in Oklahoma, 103 wheat samples were tested by the Plant Disease and Insect Diagnostic Lab at OSU for presence of mite-transmitted viruses. Of these 103 samples, 69 (67%) tested positive for WSMV and 22 (21%) tested positive for HPV. In 2018, only 12 of 126 (10%) samples tested positive for one or both of these viruses. In 2019, only 21 samples were submitted for testing with 7 samples (33%) testing positive for WSMV (no positives for HPV). In 2020, few samples (less than 5) tested positive for any of these viruses. This lower number of positive samples in 2019 and 2020 likely was the result of an overall later planting date of wheat in the fall of 2018 due to wet conditions and in fall 2020 due to extremely dry conditions. I believe this later planting date in conjunction with more awareness and action in limiting the green bridge helped to lower the incidence and severity of the mite-transmitted viruses in Oklahoma in both 2019 and 2020.
Finally, seed treatments and insecticides are NOT effective in controlling the mites or these mite-transmitted virus diseases. Regarding resistant varieties, there are several winter wheat varieties that have resistance to either WSM or the curl mites, but the adaptation of these varieties to Oklahoma is limited, and the resistance is not typically an absolute resistance to the disease. Hence, severe and continuous disease pressure especially at higher temperature (greater than about 75 F) can overcome the resistance. For more information on mite-transmitted virus diseases, see OSU Fact Sheet EPP-7328 (Wheat Streak Mosaic, High Plains Disease and Triticum Mosaic: Three Virus Diseases of Wheat in Oklahoma).

Figure 1. Wheat curl mites and symptoms of wheat streak mosaic.
Figure 2. A commercial wheat field (right) growing adjacent to a field (left) in which volunteer wheat and grassy weeds were not controlled until the spring. The commercial field begin to show WSM symptoms in late March and the disease became severe as the spring progressed.

Aphid/barley yellow dwarf (BYD) complex:  Viruses that cause BYD are transmitted by many cereal-feeding aphids (Figure 3).  BYD infections that occur in the fall are the most severe because virus has a longer time to damage plants as compared to infections that occur in the spring. 

Several steps can be taken to help manage BYD.  First, a later planting date (after October 1 in northern Oklahoma and after October 15 in southern Oklahoma) helps reduce the opportunity for fall infection. Second, some wheat varieties tolerate BYD better than other varieties; however, be aware that no wheat variety has a high level of resistance to the aphid/BYD complex.  For a listing of reaction of wheat varieties to BYD, other diseases and insect pests, and agronomic traits there are several sources available including variety comparison charts from Oklahoma State University (www.wheat.okstate.edu) and Kansas State University (https://bookstore.ksre.ksu.edu/pubs/MF991.pdf), and the annual wheat variety publication titled, “Wheat Varieties for Kansas and the Great Plains by Layton Ehmke (34 Star Publishing Inc.;  layton@34starpublising.comhttps://thewheatfarmer.com; 1-844-643-0170).  Third, control aphids that transmit the viruses that cause BYD.  This can be done by applying contact insecticides to kill aphids, or by treating seed before planting with a systemic insecticide.  Unfortunately, by the time contact insecticides are applied, aphids frequently have already transmitted the viruses that cause BYD. Systemic seed-treatment insecticides containing imidacloprid or thiamethoxam can control aphids during the fall after planting.  This may be particularly beneficial if wheat is planted early to obtain forage. Be sure to thoroughly read the label before applying any chemical.

Figure 3. Spot in field (left) of barley yellow dwarf (BYD) as would be seen in March or April. Many types of aphids (for example, greenbug; right) transmit the viruses that cause BYD.

Hessian fly:  Hessian fly (Figure 4) infestations can occur in the fall and spring.  Fall infestations arise from over-summering pupae that emerge when climate conditions become favorable.  In states north of Oklahoma, a “Hessian fly free” planting date often is used to help limit fall infestations by Hessian fly.  However, such a planting date does not apply in Oklahoma because Hessian fly can emerge in Oklahoma as late as December (Figure 5).

Delayed planting (after October 1 in northern Oklahoma, and after October 15 in southern Oklahoma) can help reduce the threat of Hessian fly, but a specific “fly free date” does not exist for most of Oklahoma as it does in Kansas and more northern wheat-growing states.  This is because smaller, supplementary broods of adult flies emerge throughout the fall and winter.  A number of varieties are resistant to Hessian fly; for a listing of reaction of wheat varieties to Hessian fly, other diseases and insect pests, and agronomic traits there are several sources available including variety comparison charts from Oklahoma State University (www.wheat.okstate.edu) and Kansas State University (https://bookstore.ksre.ksu.edu/pubs/MF991.pdf), and the annual wheat variety publication titled, “Wheat Varieties for Kansas and the Great Plains by Layton Ehmke (34 Star Publishing Inc.; layton@34starpublising.comhttps://thewheatfarmer.com; 1-844-643-0170).  Hessian fly infestations can be reduced somewhat by destroying volunteer wheat in and around the field at least two weeks prior to emergence of seedling wheat.  Seed treatments that contain imidacloprid or thiamethoxam will also help reduce fall infestations of seedling wheat, especially if combined with delayed planting and volunteer destruction.  For more information on Hessian fly, see OSU Fact Sheet: EPP-7086 (Hessian fly Management in Oklahoma Winter Wheat).

Figure 4. Adult Hessian fly (left) and larvae and pupae of the Hessian fly (right).
Figure 5. Emergence of Hessian fly in Oklahoma by month from 2011-2013.

Root and foot rots:  These are caused by fungi and include several diseases such as dryland (Fusarium) root rot, Rhizoctonia root rot (sharp eyespot), common root rot, take-all, and eyespot (strawbreaker).  Every year samples are received in the lab that are diagnosed with root rot.  Typically wheat affected by seedling/root rots are either submitted in the fall when wheat is in the seedling stage or in later May and early June as plants are maturing.  Germinating seeds and seedlings have small root systems that if infected impacts seed germination and seedling emergence (Figure 6).  Later in the season (late May/early June), root rots again become apparent as maturing plants are unable to obtain sufficient moisture to finish grain development especially if drought conditions are present.  In mature plants, white heads often indicates the presence of root rot (Figure 7).

In 2017-2018, the incidence and severity of root rots across Oklahoma dramatically increased compared to the 2016-2017 season.  This increase likely resulted from weather conditions that favored the root rots along with heat and drought in May/June of 2018 that promoted white heads to develop.  Dryland (Fusarium) root rot was the most common root rot observed in 2018, and caused significant damage to wheat in southwestern, western, northwestern OK as well as the panhandle.  In 2018-2019, dryland (Fusarium) root rot again became prevalent across much of Oklahoma, but was not as damaging as the previous year likely because ample moisture and cool temperatures meant that water stress on plants was much less than in 2017-2018.  Root rots were only sparsely observed in 2019-2020 and only at low severity.

Controlling root and foot rots is difficult.  There are no resistant varieties, and fungicide seed treatments with activity toward the root and foot rots are effective in protecting germinating seed and emerging seedlings, their activity usually involves early-season control or suppression rather than control at a consistently high level throughout the season.  Often, there also are different “levels” of activity related to different treatment rates, so again, CAREFULLY read the label of any seed treatment to be sure activity against the diseases and/or insects of concern are indicated, and be certain that the seed treatment(s) is being used at the rate indicated on the label for activity against those diseases and/or insects.  Later planting (after October 1 in northern Oklahoma and after October 15 in southern Oklahoma) also can help reduce the incidence and severity of root rots, but planting later will not entirely eliminate the presence or effects of root rots.  If you have a field with a history of severe root rot, consider planting that field as late as possible or plan to use it in a “graze-out” fashion if that is consistent with your overall plan. 

For some root rots, there are specific factors that contribute to disease incidence and severity.  For example, a high soil pH (>6.5) greatly favors disease development of the root rot called take-all.  OSU soil test recommendations factor in this phenomenon by reducing lime recommendations when continuous wheat is the intended crop. Another practice that can help limit take-all and some of the other root rots is the elimination of residue.  However, elimination of residue by tillage or burning does not seem to affect the incidence or severity of eyespot (strawbreaker).

Figure 6. A healthy plot of wheat in the fall as a result of using a seed treatment (left); a poor stand of wheat in the fall in a non-treated plot; a healthy seedling (left) compared to two seedlings (center and right) showing symptoms of common root rot. Notice the darkened sub-crown internode on the seedlings in the center and on the right as well as the reduced top growth compared to the healthy seedling on the left.
Figure 7. White heads indicative of root rot (left); darkened roots indicative of take all root rot (center); wheat killed by dryland root rot split open to show the pinkish growth of the causal fungus, Fusarium (right).

Seed treatments:  There are several excellent reasons to plant seed wheat treated with an insecticide/fungicide seed treatment. These include:

1.      Control of bunts and smuts, including common bunt (also called stinking smut) and loose smut.  The similarity of these names can be confusing.  All affect the grain of wheat, but whereas common bunt spores carryover on seed or in the soil, loose smut carries over in the seed. Seed treatments labeled to control bunts and smuts are highly effective.  If common bunt (stinking smut) was observed in a field and that field is to be planted again with wheat, then planting certified wheat seed treated with a fungicide effective against common bunt (stinking smut) is strongly recommended.  If either common bunt (stinking smut) or loose smut was observed in a field, grain harvested from that field should not be used as seed the next year.  However, if grain harvested from such a field must be used as seed wheat, treatment of that seed at a high rate of a systemic or a systemic + contact seed treatment effective against common bunt (stinking smut) and loose smut is strongly recommended.  In 2020, loose smut in fields and common bunt in harvested grain was observed at higher incidence and severity than for several years, so I strongly recommend planting certified wheat seed that was been treated with a fungicide labeled for control of bunt and smut.  For more information on common bunt (stinking smut) & loose smut, see: http://www.entoplp.okstate.edu/ddd/hosts/wheat.htm and consult the “2020 OSU Extension Agents’ Handbook of Insect, Plant Disease, and Weed Control (OCES publication E-832),” and/or contact your County Extension Educator.

2.      Enhance seedling emergence, stand establishment, and forage production by suppressing root, crown and foot rots.  This was discussed above under “Root and Foot Rots.”

3.      Early season control of the aphid/BYDV complex.  This can be achieved by using a seed treatment containing an insecticide.  Be sure that the treatment includes an insecticide labeled for control of aphids.

4.      Control fall foliar diseases including leaf rust and powdery mildew.  Seed treatments are effective in controlling foliar diseases (especially leaf rust and powdery mildew) in the fall, which may reduce the inoculum level of these diseases in the spring.  However, this control should be viewed as an added benefit and not necessarily as a sole reason to use a seed treatment.

5.      Suppression of early emerged Hessian fly.  Research suggests that some suppression can be achieved, but an insecticide seed treatment has little residual activity past the seedling stage and Hessian fly often infests wheat after the seedling stage.

Fall Armyworm Potential:  We have seen a severe outbreak of fall armyworms infesting bermudagrass and fescues lawns this past month.  The strain that is infesting these lawns is known as the “rice” strain, and it overwinters in the Florida Gulf Coast and parts of the Caribbean.  We typically see the “corn” strain which typically overwinters in the Texas Gulf Coast and Mexico.  The rice strain prefers rice, and grasses, and the corn strain prefers corn and sorghum and as we have seen in the past, winter wheat.  This year, Oklahoma is experiencing a “double whammy” of both strains, and unfortunately, they both like wheat.   So, our advice is to carefully watch your fields after they emerge and deal with any fall armyworm infestations before they take your stand.

Lanie Hale, from Wheeler Brothers sent a picture of “window paned” wheat from a field that he had scouted in 2017. He counted 3 fall armyworms per row foot from his visual count (which is treatment threshold) but when he looked closely at his photo on his computer, he saw 15 worms in an area the size of his hand (they were very tiny, and probably newly hatched). It is easy to miss some of these little worms in the field because they hide in residue and are very tiny. 

Symptoms like “window pane” in the leaves indicate feeding from fall armyworm.

Look very closely for “window paned” leaves and count all sizes of larvae. Examine plants along the field margin as well as in the interior, because they sometimes move in from road ditches and weedy areas. The suggested treatment threshold is 2-3 larvae per linear foot of row in wheat with active feeding.  Numerous insecticides are registered for control, but they are much more susceptible when caterpillars are small. We won’t get relief from fall armyworms until we get a killing frost, so keep vigilant!

Consult the newly updated OSU Fact Sheets CR-7194 Management of Insect and Mite Pests of Small Grains  for control suggestions.

Join me in congratulating Dr. Bob Hunger for his retirement after 39 years of service!

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

Today I would like to dedicate a post to Dr. Bob Hunger, who has served as the OSU Wheat Extension Pathologist for 39 years and is officially retiring today!

Bob, I am grateful to have had the chance to work with you during our time at OSU. Thanks for being a mentor, colleague, and a friend. I know you have many fun plans, but I hope you won’t forget us.

I had so much fun traveling with you to field days this year. I learned many things with you, including a few American sayings like “bright-eyed and bushy-tailed” on our early morning trips and how to use a printed road map to get to our sites instead of using a GPS. However, I am not sure I will follow you on this last one lol.

Bob, I hope you know the great contributions you have made to the OK wheat industry and how much we appreciate you. See a few pictures below 🙂

My first (in person) field day season and Bob’s last field day season. Cotton County, 2021.
Bob about to dig in at Eischen’s, the oldest bar in OK. This was after our field day at Kingfisher.
Bob giving an update on wheat diseases at the field day at Cherokee.
The field day in the Panhandle would not be complete if we didn’t stop for a blizzard on a hot day in Woodward. Drs. Edwards and Manuchehri will relate to that.
Brett Carver, me, and Bob celebrating Bob’s retirement with a lunch and walk around OSU campus.
The Oklahoma Wheat Commission recognized Bob for his 39 years of dedicated service during the Lahoma Field Day.

Thank you, Bob!

Feel free to leave a message to Bob here below. I am sure he will be glad to read it.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest is Wrapping up Except in North Central and Panhandle regions Where Producers Continue to Fight Rain

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest continues to move forward with producers facing challenges from Mother Nature, with continued rains in North Central and Panhandle regions of Oklahoma. Since our last report, producers were fighting mud within fields from rains received last Wednesday and Thursday. Combines got moving again in parts of North Central Oklahoma and the Panhandle yesterday; but,  have been hindered by rains again late last night in the Panhandle regions out by Hooker and Guymon, and now late this afternoon in North Central Oklahoma.  Since last week Oklahoma completion towards harvest has made slight progress moving from 85% complete to now 92% complete. In the Northern regions, producers in Garfield, Major, Alfalfa, Woodward, Woods, Ellis, counties are mostly finished, with the majority of wheat that is left to cut being in Grant, Kay and Noble counties.  In the Panhandle regions producers are pretty well finished in Harper, Beaver and Cimmaron counties.  Approximately 25% to 30% of the crop mostly now being irrigated wheat, is still in the field in Texas county around Goodwell, Guymon and Hooker.  We have now seen a decline on test weights within the crop on the last remaining 15% to be harvested across the state. Test weights on wheat being taken in this past week now is ranging from 54 lbs./bu. to 60 lbs./bu., mainly in the northern regions of Oklahoma.  In the Panhandle we have had slight declines on test weight but they are maintaining a better position on irrigated wheat still coming in at mostly 60 lbs./bu. or slightly above.  While test weights have declined on the last of what is remaining in Oklahoma wheat fields, most likely this will have little impact on overall statewide test weight averages. Oklahoma had exceptionally high-test weights for most of this season so the Oklahoma crop average statewide will still come in at 60 lbs./bu. or above. Yields are still being reported as favorable ranging from the mid 40’s to mid 60’s for the most part across Northern Oklahoma. Producers with intensive management plans reporting yields in the mid 70’s to mid 80’s. In the Panhandle yields on the dryland wheat ranging from 15 to 50 bushels per acre depending on management and location.  On the irrigated wheat in the Panhandle yields are reported from 70 bushels to 110 bushels per acre. Protein reports are varying across the state with higher protein averages noted overall in Southwest, Oklahoma, ranging from 11.0% to 11.4%.  In Central Oklahoma, protein averages are ranging from 10.5% to 11.1%.  Protein reports across Northern, Oklahoma are ranging across the board from 10.1% to 11.9%.  In the Panhandle region, proteins are being reported higher including the irrigated wheat with a 12.5% average.  Currently we are calling the statewide average in Oklahoma for protein at 11.1%. 

We have been hearing reports of sprout damage now also occurring in some fields in northern Oklahoma on what is remaining in the field and what has been harvested this past week.   Sprout damage has ranged from 5% to 80% depending on field location, moisture levels and variety.  While this is becoming more of an issue for producers now in Northern Oklahoma, still the amount of wheat with sprout damage being reported will be minimal for our region based on the yields and test weights that have been reported from this harvest.  In many instances producers harvesting sprout damaged wheat will now be utilizing markets that will be moving this product into feed grains or will choose to turn it in for crop insurance purposes depending on producer plans.

Below are regions where wheat was taken in prior to Wednesday July 7, at 5:00 p.m. CST.

Southern Oklahoma locations reporting to be 99% complete.

Central Oklahoma locations reporting to be 98% complete.

Northern Oklahoma locations reporting to be 92% complete.

Northeastern Oklahoma locations reporting 99% complete.

Oklahoma Panhandle locations reporting 85% complete.

Enclosed, see the 1 hour, 24-Hour and 7-day rainfall accumulation maps with the 7-day weather forecast for Oklahoma.

The Oklahoma Wheat Commission will put a final crop report out with the date on that to be determined once the wheat harvest has been finally completed for our region.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Closer to the Finish Line as Rains Hinder Producers in the Panhandle and Northern Regions

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma wheat harvest made great strides this past week until late Friday evening, early Saturday morning where rains occurred statewide, halting producers in Northern, Oklahoma from finishing.  Harvest is complete in most regions of the state with the majority of wheat left around Enid, North of the HWY 412 corridor and East around the Garber, Tonkawa, Blackwell region along the I-35 corridor. Producers are also finishing up in far Northwest regions of the state around Shattuck and Fort Supply and in the Panhandle regions.  Statewide test weight averages are extremely favorable with most locations reporting 60 lbs./bu. and above.  A few lighter test weights were reported earlier in the season around the Blackwell, Braman region ranging from 58 lbs./bu. to 60 lbs./bu.  In the Panhandle some of the dryland wheat also had lower test weights due to drought stress on the crop, with some lower test weights being noted on irrigated fields where wheat streak mosaic virus was an issue. Test weights on these problem fields reported at 52 lbs./bu. to 56 lbs./bu., but these instances were very limited.  Yields, in most regions, have been favorable ranging from the mid 30’s to the mid 60’s depending on variety, location, and management plans.  Some producers with intensive management plans are reporting yields in the mid 70’s to mid 80’s, in parts of Northern Oklahoma. Protein reports are varying across the state with higher protein averages noted overall in Southwest, Oklahoma, ranging from 11.0% to 11.4%.  In Central Oklahoma, protein averages are ranging from 10.5% to 11.1%.  Protein reports across Northern, Oklahoma are ranging across the board from 10.1% to 11.9%.  In the Panhandle region, proteins are being reported higher including the irrigated wheat with a 12.5% average.  Currently we are calling the statewide average in Oklahoma for protein at 11.1%.  Harvest is estimated at 85% complete.

Due to heavy rain showers across the state, this will be the only harvest report from the Oklahoma Wheat Commission for this week, as it is predicted in most places, producers will not be back into the fields until the end of this week. The next Oklahoma harvest report will be published on July 7, 2021.

Below are regions where wheat was taken in prior to Wednesday June 28th, at 12:00 noon CST.

Southern Oklahoma locations reporting to be 99% complete.

Central Oklahoma locations reporting to be 96% complete.

Northern Oklahoma locations reporting to be 85% complete.

Northeastern Oklahoma locations reporting 95% complete.

Oklahoma Panhandle locations reporting 70 to 75% complete.

Northern Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Blackwell/Braman- Yields have varied from the mid 30’s to the mid 40’s, for the most part. Lower test weights in this region along the I-35 corridor have been ranging from 56 lbs./bu. to 58 lbs./bu. on some of the wheat.  In other areas, test weights are ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 63 lbs./bu.  Some higher yields with intensive management have also been reported in the mid 50’s. A lot of the differences in the crop depended on planting date, management and variety selection.  Harvest in this region is 85% complete.

Deer Creek/ Renfrow/ Medford/ Pond Creek- Harvest made great progress in this region over the past week but was hindered with rains throughout Grant County late Friday night and early Saturday morning.  Test weights have been averaging 60 lbs./bu. or above.  Yields ranging from the mid 30’s to mid 50’s, depending on management. Some highly intensive managed fields reported at making 70+.  Harvest in this region is 70-75% complete.

Goltry/Helena- Producers in this region made great progress over the past week.  Yields reported in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.  Test weights coming in at 60 lbs./bu. or above.  Harvest in this area reported at 96% complete.

Burlington- Producers made great progress in this area with yields ranging from the mid 30’s to the mid 40’s. Some higher yields have been noted in the mid 50’s.  The test weights have been averaging from 62 lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu.  Harvest in this area is 99% complete.

Shattuck/Fort Supply – Producers also made great progress in this region. Yields being reported in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s. Some higher yields on more intensive management being reported in the mid 50’s.  Test weights being reported at 60 lbs./bu. or higher.  Harvest in this region at 80% complete.

Northeastern Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Afton/Miami- Harvest is almost wrapped up in this region. Test weights reported at 60 lbs./bu. or above with yields making in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.  Some better managed fields making in the mid 60’s. (Note:  This region also grows Soft Red Winter Wheat (SRW) which is marketed to regional bakeries for cake and pastry flours not the traditional Hard Red Winter Wheat (HRW) utilized for bread baking, bread rolls and flat breads). Traditionally SRW wheat will have lower test weights and yields but nothing has been reported below 60 lbs./bu. for the SRW wheats, and yields have also been favorable ranging from the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.  Harvest in this region is 95% complete.

Panhandle Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Goodwell/Guymon/Hooker- Yields have ranged from 10 to 40 bushels per acre on dryland wheat, depending on management and where producers got the rain.  Test weights on the poorer quality wheat ranging from 56 lbs./bu. to 58 lbs./bu. with the higher quality yielding wheat weighing 60 lbs./bu. and above.  Proteins in this region are ranging all over the board but will probably be a 12.5 average with some proteins reported as high as 18 on dryland wheat.   Producers have also started making great progress on the irrigated wheat within this region. Test weights on most irrigated wheat is coming in at 62 lbs./bu. to 65 lbs./bu. except where minor instances of wheat streak mosaic virus caused damage in the fields. Yields are being reported from the mid 70’s to around 110 bushels per acre depending on location and management for the irrigated wheat.  Proteins continue to also be favorable on irrigated wheat with at 12.5% average being reported.  Harvest in this region reported at 70 to 75% complete.

Enclosed, see the 24-Hour and 4-day rainfall accumulation maps with the 7-day weather forecast for Oklahoma.

Due to the rainfall received over the weekend and predicted this week, the next harvest report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published Wednesday, July 7, 2021. A regional harvest report and crop update will be made available and published on Friday, July 2, 2021, made possible by Plains Grains Inc.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Moving Ahead Amid Light Rain Showers Across the State Earlier in the Week

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest continues across the state in all regions today. Rain showers early Monday morning thru mid-morning hindered harvest progress on Monday and Tuesday in several parts of Northern Oklahoma while other regions had lighter amounts and were able to get back into the fields yesterday.  Producers in areas of Northern Oklahoma are just getting back to the fields this afternoon up by Kremlin and in other parts of Grant County.  Producers are just starting with cuttings of irrigated wheat in the Panhandle regions, but no reports have been made currently. Early cuttings on the crop taken after the rains this week are not showing any signs of major test weight loss or yield loss.  Overall crop quality continues to be favorable with test weight and yield reports. Statewide test weight averages are extremely favorable with most reporting 60 lbs./bu. and above.  A few lighter test weights have been reported in the Blackwell, Braman region on the I-35 corridor and on some of the dry-land wheat in the Panhandle.  In the Panhandle the lighter test weights have been due to crop stress with drought depending on location.  Lighter test weights in these regions reported as low as 56 lbs./bu. although those instances are far and few between.   Yields, in most all regions, have been favorable ranging from the mid 30’s to mid 60’s depending on variety, location and management plans.  Some producers with intensive management programs are reporting yields in the mid 70’s to mid 80’s in parts of Northern Oklahoma.  Protein reports across the state are varying, with wide ranges in Southwest Oklahoma.  For the most part, we are hearing regional averages of 11.0% to 11.4%; although some lower numbers have been reported in Tillman County to be in the 10% range.  In Central Oklahoma we are seeing slightly lower proteins in the 10.5% to 11.1% range.  Early reports on protein in Northern Oklahoma are ranging across the board, with higher numbers being reported in the Northwestern corridor where we had less rain from the Helena, Ringwood, Cherokee and Alva regions earlier in the year. Averages along this corridor coming in at 11.1% to 11.2%.  East of Enid and North we are seeing protein numbers vary across the board from 10.1% to 11.8%.  Some numbers as high as 14% being reported in Grant County, based on variety and producer management. Some elevators in the Panhandle reporting dryland wheat proteins to be as high as 17. Currently we are calling the statewide average in Oklahoma for protein at 11.1% Harvest is estimated at 65% complete.

Below are regions where wheat has been taken in prior to Wednesday June 23, at 3:00 p.m. CST.

Southern Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Grandfield/Devol/Lawton- Test weights continue to be favorable in this region with a 62 lbs./bu. average.  Yields currently being reported in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s, some fields with intensive management have been reported in the mid 50’s.  This area is 95% complete.

Altus- Harvest was slowed in this region early last week, with combines back in the field last Wednesday and over the weekend.  Light rains, once again, have hindered harvest progress on what is left but producers were able to get back into fields yesterday.  Test weights to this point still ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 62 lbs./bu. with yields being reported in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s.  Some fields with intensive management have been reported making in the mid 60’s to mid 70’s.  Harvest is 95% complete.

Frederick/Chattanooga- Test weights are ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 61 lbs./bu.  Yields in this area making in the low to mid 40’s for the most part. Rains have hindered this area more than other parts of Southern Oklahoma.  As of today harvest is 98% complete.

Lone Wolf/Hobart- Wheat harvest continues in this region. Test weights averaging 61 lbs./bu. to 63 lbs./bu. Yields being reported from the mid 30’s to mid 50’s depending on location and management.   Yields have been better around the Hobart area, due to more moisture received in this region throughout the growing season.  Harvest in this region is 95% complete.

Roosevelt- Yields across the board in this region being reported in the mid 40’s.  The test weights in this region ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 62 lbs./bu. Harvest in this region is 85% complete.

Sentinel/Rocky- Harvest has made great progress in this region over the past few days.  Yields are being reported as favorable making in the upper 30’s to mid 40’s.  Fields with more intense management in both locations have been reported in the mid 60’s. Test weight on the wheat is ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu.  Harvest in this region is 95% complete.

Central Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Hinton/Okarche- Yields in these regions being reported in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s for the most part, depending on management practices.  Some fields with intensive management making in the mid 60’s. Test weight average for this region is 62.5 lbs./bu.  Harvest in this region is 97% complete.

Reeding/Kingfisher/Omega/Greenfield- Yields in this region have been favorable up to this point. Yields for the most part are ranging from the mid to low 40’s. Test weights have been ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu. Harvest in this region for all locations is 90% complete.

Northern Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Blackwell/Braman- Yields have varied from the mid 30’s to the mid 40’s, for the most part. Lower test weights in this region along the I-35 corridor have been ranging from 56 lbs./bu. to 58 lbs./bu. on some of the wheat.  In other parts test weights are ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 63 lbs./bu. Some higher yields with intensive management have also been reported in the mid 50’s. A lot of the differences in the crop depended on planting date, management and variety selection. Harvest in this region for all locations is 57% complete.

Deer Creek/ Renfrow/ Medford/ Pond Creek- Harvest made great progress in this region over the past week, but was hindered with rains throughout Grant County late Sunday night and early Monday morning.  Test weights have been averaging 60 lbs./bu. or above.  Yields ranging from the mid 30’s to mid 50’s, depending on management. Some highly intensive managed fields reported at making 70+.  Harvest in this region is 55% complete.

Goltry/Helena- Producers in this region made great progress over the past week, until scattered showers arrived late Sunday night and early Monday morning.  Yields reported in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.  Test weights coming in at 60 lbs./bu. or above.  Harvest in this area reported at 80% complete.

Burlington- Producers continue to make progress in this area with yields ranging from the mid 30’s to the mid 40’s. Some higher yields have been noted in the mid 50’s.  The test weights have been averaging from 62 lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu.  Harvest in this area is 95% completed.

Alva – Producers have made great progress with harvest in this area over the past week until the rains received Sunday and early Monday morning. Yields being reported in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s. Some higher yields on more intensive management being reported in the mid 50’s.  Test weights being reported at 60 lbs./bu. or higher.  Harvest in this region reported at 90% complete.

Northeastern Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Afton/Miami- Harvest started last week in this region and is moving along at a steady pace. Test weights reported at 60 lbs./bu. or above. Yields reported making in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.  Some better managed fields making in the mid 60’s. (Note:  This region also grows Soft Red Winter Wheat (SRW) which is marketed to regional bakeries for cake and pastry flours not the traditional Hard Red Winter Wheat (HRW) utilized for bread baking, bread rolls and flat breads.) Traditionally SRW wheat will have lower test weights and yields but nothing has been reported below 60 lbs./bu. for the SRW wheats, and yields have also been favorable ranging from the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.  Harvest in this region is 80% complete.

Panhandle Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Guymon/Hooker-  Yields have ranged from 10 to 40 bushels per acre on dryland wheat, depending on management and where producers got the rain.  Test weights on the poorer quality wheat ranging from 56 lbs./bu. to 58 lbs./bu. On the higher quality yielding wheat weighing 60 lbs./bu. and above.  Proteins in this region are ranging all over the board but will probably be a 12.5 average. Some proteins as high as 18 have been reported on dryland wheat.   We have also had reports of early test cuttings of irrigated wheat being taken at both Guymon and Hooker, but no yield data or information was available at the time of this report on those early cuttings.

Enclosed, see the 24-Hour and 4 day rainfall accumulation maps with the 7-day weather forecast for Oklahoma.

The next harvest report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published Monday, June 28, 2021.  A regional harvest report and crop update will be made available and published on Friday, June 25, 2021, made possible by Plains Grains Inc.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Made Great Strides, Hindered by Light Rains and Cooler Temperatures

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest continues to move along in all regions of the state.  While producers are wrapping up in most parts of Southern and Central Oklahoma, great strides have also been made in Northern, Oklahoma this past week until rains came thru early Monday morning. Light showers also moved across the state in most regions, with cooler temperatures and light precipitation even in parts of Southern Oklahoma. (Lows for today were ranging from 56 degrees to 62 degrees in the Oklahoma wheat belt, certainly unusual and could even break records for this time of year.)   Overall crop quality continues to be favorable with test weight and yield reports. Statewide test weight averages are extremely favorable with most reporting 60 lbs./bu. and above. A few lighter test weights have been reported in the Blackwell, Braman region on the I-35 corridor, and on some of the dry-land wheat in the Panhandle.  In the Panhandle the lighter test weights have been due to crop stress with drought depending on location.  Lighter test weights in these regions reported as low as 56 lbs./bu although those instances are far and few between. Yields in most all regions have been favorable ranging from the mid 30’s to mid 60’s depending on variety, location and management plans.  Some producers with intensive management programs are reporting yields in the mid 70’s to mid 80’s in parts of Northern, Oklahoma.  Protein reports across the state are varying, with wide ranges in Southwest Oklahoma.  For the most part we are hearing regional averages of 11.0% to 11.4%; although some lower numbers have been reported in Tillman County to be in the 10% range.  In Central Oklahoma we are seeing slightly lower proteins in the 10.5% to 11.1% range.  Early reports on protein in Northern Oklahoma are ranging across the board with higher numbers being reported in the Northwestern corridor where we had less rain from the Helena, Ringwood, Cherokee and Alva regions earlier in the year. Averages along this corridor coming in at 11.1% to 11.2%.  East of Enid and North we are seeing protein numbers vary across the board from 10.1% to 11.8%.  Some numbers as high as 14% being reported in Grant County, based on variety and producer management. Some elevators in the Panhandle reporting dryland wheat proteins to be as high as 17. Currently we are calling the statewide average in Oklahoma for protein at 11.1%. Harvest is estimated at 55% complete.

Below are regions where wheat has been taken in prior to Monday June 21, at 4:00  CST.

Southern Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Grandfield/Devol/Lawton- Test weights continue to be favorable in this region with a 62 lbs./bu. average.  Yields currently being reported in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s, some fields with intensive management have been reported in the mid 50’s.  This area is 90% complete.

Altus- Harvest was slowed in this region early last week, with combines back in the field last Wednesday and over the weekend.  Light rains once again have hindered harvest progress on what is left.  Test weights to this point still ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 62 lbs./bu. with yields being reported in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s.  Some fields with intensive management have been reported making in the mid 60’s to mid 70’s.  Harvest is 90% complete.

Frederick/Chattanooga- Test weights are ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 61 lbs./bu.  Yields in this area making in the low to mid 40’s for the most part. Rains have hindered this area more than other parts of Southern Oklahoma but as of today harvest is 95% to 97% complete.

Lone Wolf/Hobart- Wheat harvest continues in this region. Test weights averaging 61 lbs./bu. to 63 lbs./bu. Yields being reported from the mid 30’s to mid 50’s depending on location and management. Yields have been better around the Hobart area, due to more moisture received in this region throughout the growing season.  Harvest in this region is 90% complete.

Roosevelt- Yields across the board in this region being reported in the mid 40’s. The test weights in this region ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 62 lbs./bu. Harvest in this region is 70% complete.

Sentinel/Rocky- Harvest has made great progress in this region over the past few days. Yields are being reported as favorable making in the upper 30’s to mid 40’s. Fields with more intense management in both locations have been reported in the mid 60’s. Test weight on the wheat is ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu.  Harvest in this region is 80% to 85% complete.

Central Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Hinton/Okarche- Yields in these regions being reported in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s for the most part, depending on management practices. Some fields with intensive management making in the mid 60’s. Test weight average for this region is 62.5 lbs./bu.

Reeding/Kingfisher/Omega/Greenfield- Yields in this region have been favorable up to this point. Yields for the most part are ranging from the mid to low 40’s. Test weights have been ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu. Harvest in this region for all locations is 85% complete.

Northern Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Blackwell/Braman- Yields have varied from the mid 30’s to the mid 40’s, for the most part. Lower test weights in this region along the I-35 corridor have been ranging from 56 lbs./bu. to 58 lbs./bu. on some of the wheat.  In other parts test weights are ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 63 lbs./bu. Some higher yields with intensive management have also been reported in the mid 50’s. A lot of the differences in the crop depended on planting date, management and variety selection. Harvest in this region for all locations is 50% complete.

Deer Creek/ Renfrow/ Medford/ Pond Creek- Harvest made great progress in this region over the past week, but was hindered with rains throughout Grant County late Sunday night and early Monday morning.  At the time of this report many regions received ½ inch to 1 inch of moisture. Test weights have been averaging 60 lbs./bu. or above.  Yields ranging from the mid 30’s to mid 50’s, depending on management. Some highly intensive managed fields reported at making 70+.  Harvest in this region is 50% complete.

Goltry/Helena- Producers in this region made great progress over the past week, until scattered showers arrived late Sunday night and early Monday morning.  Some parts in this region reporting ½ inch to 1 inch of moisture depending on location.  Yields reported in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.  Test weights coming in at 60 lbs./bu. or above.  Harvest in this area reported at 75% complete.

Burlington- Producers continue to make progress in this area with yields ranging from the mid 30’s to the mid 40’s. Some higher yields have been noted in the mid 50’s. The test weights have been averaging from 62 lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu.  Harvest in this area is 90% completed.

Alva – Producers have made great progress with harvest in this area over the past week until the rains received Sunday and early this morning. Yields being reported in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s. Some higher yields on more intensive management being reported in the mid 50’s.  Test weights being reported at 60 lbs./bu. or higher.  Harvest in this region reported at 80% complete.

Northeastern Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Afton/Miami- Harvest started last week in this region and is moving along at a steady pace. Test weights reported at 60 lbs./bu. or above. Yields reported making in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.  Some better managed fields making in the mid 60’s. (Note:  This region also grows Soft Red Winter Wheat (SRW) which is marketed to regional bakeries for cake and pastry flours not the traditional Hard Red Winter Wheat (HRW) utilized for bread baking, bread rolls and flat breads.) Traditionally SRW wheat will have lower test weights and yields but nothing has been reported below 60 lbs./bu. for the SRW wheats, and yields have also been favorable ranging from the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.  Harvest in this region is 65% complete.

Panhandle Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Guymon/Hooker- Harvest just started rolling late last week on dryland wheat in this region. Yields have ranged from 10 to 40 bushels per acre, depending on management and where producers got the rain.  Test weights on the poorer quality wheat ranging from 56 lbs./bu. to 58 lbs./bu. On the higher quality yielding wheat weighing 60 lbs./bu. and above. No irrigated wheat has been reported as being harvested and is still most likely a week off.  Proteins in this region are ranging all over the board but will probably be a 12.5 average, some proteins as high as 18 have been reported.

Enclosed, see the 24-Hour and 4 day rainfall accumulation maps with the 7-day weather forecast for Oklahoma.

The next harvest report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published Wednesday, June 23, 2021. 

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Continues to Move Full Speed Ahead

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Wheat harvest continues to make great progress in Southern and Central Oklahoma. Producers along the 412 Hwy corridor, in Northern Oklahoma, are just getting a good start.  Custom harvesting crews are trying to finalize cuttings in Southern and Central Oklahoma and this has impacted some producers getting fields harvested in Northern regions, but with the open weather that most likely is going to change in the next couple days.  Overall crop quality continues to be favorable with test weight and yield reports. Statewide nothing has been reported below 60 lbs./bu., until today and we are seeing some lower test weights being reported east of Enid and in regions North of Blackwell and Braman on the I-35 corridor.  Yields in most all regions have been favorable ranging from the mid 30’s to mid 60’s depending on variety, location and management plans.  Some producers with intensive management programs are reporting yields in the mid 70’s to mid 80’s in parts of Northern, Oklahoma.  Protein reports across the state are varying, with wide ranges, in Southwest, Oklahoma.  For the most part we are hearing regional averages of 11.2% to 11.6%, although some lower numbers have been reported in Tillman County to be in the 10% range.  In Central, Oklahoma we are seeing slightly lower proteins in the 10.5% to 11.1% range.  Early reports on protein in Northern, Oklahoma, are ranging across the board with higher numbers being reported around the Ringwood, Cherokee & Burlington regions. Averages along this corridor coming in at 11.1% to 11.2%.  East of Enid and North we are seeing protein numbers vary across the board from 10.1% to 11.8%.  Some numbers as high as 14% have been reported although that is few and far between. Currently we are calling the statewide average in Oklahoma for protein at 11.2%.

Below are regions where wheat has been taken in prior to Wednesday June 16, at 3:00  CST.

Southwest Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Grandfield/Devol/Lawton- Test weights have still been holding up even though light rains have occurred, prior to producers getting back into fields.  This region has a 62 lbs./bu average.  Yields currently being reported in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s, some fields with intensive management have been reported in the mid 50’s.  This area is being reported at 65% to 70% completed.

Altus- Harvest was slowed due to rains late last week and over the weekend. Test weights to this point still ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 62 lbs./bu. with yields being reported in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s.  Some fields with intensive management have been reported making in the mid 60’s to mid 70’s.  Harvest is 55% complete.

Frederick/Chattanooga- Test weights are still holding up in Tillman County even with the later rains received last week that have hindered harvest.  Test weights are ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 61 lbs./bu.  Yields in this area making in the low to mid 40’s for the most part. Harvest just a little over 50% complete.

Lone Wolf/Hobart- Wheat harvest continues in this region. Test weights averaging 61 lbs./bu. to 63 lbs./bu. Yields being reported from the mid 30’s to mid 50’s depending on location and management. Yields have been better around the Hobart area, due to more moisture received in this region throughout the growing season.  Harvest in this region is 75% complete.

Apache- Yields across the board in this region being reported in the mid 40’s.  The test weight average for this location is 62.5 lbs./bu.  Protein average for this location is 11.5%. Harvest in this region is 25% to 30% complete.

Sentinel/Rocky- Harvest has made great progress in this region over the past few days.  Yields are being reported as favorable making in the upper 30’s to mid 40’s.  Fields with more intense management in both locations have been reported in the mid 60’s. Test weight on the wheat is ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu.  Harvest in this region is 50% complete.

Central Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Reeding/Kingfisher/Omega/Greenfield- Yields in this region have been favorable up to this point. Harvest has been moving forward in this area for the past week, but it has been slower with the scattered showers and high humidity.  Yields for the most part are ranging from the mid to low 40’s.   Test weights have been ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu. Harvest in the Eastern part of this region is 55% to 60% complete. Harvest in the Western part of this region is 40% complete.

Northern Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Blackwell/Braman- Harvest is just getting started. Yields have varied from the mid 30’s to the mid 50’s for the most part on early cuttings.  Lower test weights in this region along the I-35 corridor have been ranging from 56 lbs./bu. to 60 lbs./bu.  Harvest in this region is 5% to 7% complete.

Deer Creek/ Renfrow/ Medford/ Pond Creek- Harvest is just getting started in this region of Grant County.  Test weights have been averaging 60 lbs./bu. or above.  Yields ranging from the mid 30’s to mid 50’s, depending on management. Some highly intensive managed fields reported at making 70+.  Protein in this region is ranging from 10% to 13%.  Harvest in this region is 10% complete.

Kremlin- Yields for the most part have been favorable in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s depending on management.  Some yields have been noted at 70+.  Test weights are ranging from 61 lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu.  Protein is 11.8% for this area.  Harvest in this region is 10% complete.

Cherokee- Harvest is moving along in this region. Test weights have averaged 63 lbs./bu. to 65 lbs./bu. Yields are being reported in the mid 40’s with some higher yields being reported on fields with intensive management making 70+.  Protein average for this region is coming in at 11.2%.  Harvest in this region is 20% to 25% complete.

Burlington- Producers continue to make progress in this area with yields ranging from the mid 30’s to the mid 40’s. Some higher yields have been noted in the mid 50’s.  The test weight average has been from 60.5 lbs./bu. to 61.5 lbs./bu.  No protein was reported.  Harvest in this area is 35% completed.

Alva/Selman/Buffalo- Harvest is starting to move along in this region, but has been slower around the Buffalo area.  Yields are ranging in the mid 30’s to mid 50’s depending on management practices. Harvest is less than 10% complete for this area.

Shattuck/Fort Supply- Harvest has started picking up in the Shattuck region and is just getting started in the Fort Supply area.  Early yields are reported in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s, although yields seem to be lower South of Shattuck due to less moisture.   Test weights are ranging from 62lbs./bu. to 63lbs./bu.  Harvest in Shattuck is 10% complete and is 5% complete around the Fort Supply area.

Enclosed, see the 4 day and 24-Hour rainfall accumulation maps with the 7-day weather forecast for Oklahoma.

The next harvest report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published Monday, June 21, 2021.  A regional harvest report and crop update will be made available and published on Friday, June 18, 2021.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Taking Place from Oklahoma/Texas Border to Oklahoma/Kansas State Line

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Southwest & Central Oklahoma

Wheat harvest continues to roll along in week 2. While great progress has been made in regions of Southwest, Oklahoma, some areas have had light rains over the weekend which has put harvest on hold.  In the Altus region heavier rains were reported and will delay producers from getting back into the fields for the next couple days.  Other parts of Southwest, Oklahoma have had light showers, while producers have not had to fight mud in most places, the light rains and high humidity levels have created delays with late starts on most days.  In South Central Oklahoma, around Minco/Tuttle, and in North Central Oklahoma around Goltry producers over the weekend had light rains which have delayed harvest progress from really getting started in those regions.  Overall crop quality continues to be favorable with test weight and yield reports. Statewide nothing has been reported below 60 lbs./bu. Yields in most all regions have been favorable ranging from the mid 30’s to mid 60’s depending on variety, location and management plans.  A lot of yields across the state are reported in the low 40’s. We are seeing lower yields once you get west of Lone Wolf and Cordell, due to more intense drought situations that producers have been dealing with in that region all year. In the Southwest region proteins being reported are still in a favorable range of 11.5 percent.  Harvest in many parts of this region are 50% to 60% completed, while in other parts some locations are reporting 20% to 30% completed.

Northern Oklahoma

The regions North of 412 Hwy from the Helena to Garber area, harvest is just getting started as several producers were able to start with test cutting over the weekend.  Early indications from this region North in most places it is estimated that yields will be decent and mirror much of what we saw last year, with ranges from the mid 40’s to mid 60’s; although in some places lack of moisture during this spring seem to have impacted the crop especially around the Cherokee, Burlington and Alva regions.  It is too early to report an accurate protein number on the crop that is being harvest in Central and Northern, Oklahoma, it looks like this also is going to mirror what we saw last year, with high pocket regions, and some areas that will be lower.

Below are regions where wheat has been taken in prior to Monday June 14, at 12:00 noon CST.

Southwest Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Duke- Harvest is progressing in this region. Yields have been ranging in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s. Test weights averaging 62 lbs./bu. to 63 lbs./bu. per bushel.  Harvest in this region is 60% complete.

Altus- Harvest was successful in this region prior to heavy rains received over the weekend.  This region received 1.4 to 1.9 inches of moisture over the weekend and harvest will be at a standstill most likely the next couple days.   Test weights to this point ranging from 61 lbs./bu. to 63 lbs./bu. with yields being reported in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s for the most part.  Harvest 50% to 60% complete.

Lone Wolf/Hobart- Wheat harvest continues in this region. Test weights averaging 61 lbs./bu. to 63 lbs./bu. Yields being reported from the mid 30’s to mid 50’s depending on location and management.   Yields have been better around the Hobart area, due to more moisture received in this region throughout the growing season.  Harvest in this region is 55% complete.

Roosevelt- Harvest in this region has been slower this year due to several untimely rains and high humidity days.  Yields on the wheat in this region have been more favorable than other areas of Southwest, Oklahoma, due to more moisture throughout the growing season.  Yields are being reported in the high 30’s to low 50’s.  Test weights are being reported at 61 lbs./bu. to 62 lbs./bu. per bushel.  Harvest in this region is 30% complete.

Sentinel/Rocky- Light rain showers and high humidity throughout the week have hindered harvest from getting into full swing.  Custom cutters have been slower to arrive in the region due to harvest still going on in the Central/Northern Texas regions and other parts of Southwest, Oklahoma.  Yields are being reported as favorable making in the upper 30’s to mid 40’s on early cuttings. Test weight on the wheat is ranging from 62lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu.  Harvest in this region is 20% complete.

Central Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Reeding/Kingfisher/Omega- Yields in this region have been favorable up to this point in time. Harvest has been moving forward in this area for the past week, but it has been slower going with the scattered showers and high humidity.  Yields for the most part are ranging from the mid to low 40’s. One yield was reported to make above 75 bushels per acre on a field with intensive management North of Kingfisher. Test weights have been ranging from 60 lbs./bu. to 64 lbs./bu. Harvest in this region will have a more accurate field count on Wednesday, but right now we are calling the area 35% to 40% harvested.

Northern Oklahoma Locations Reporting

Perry/Tonkawa/Blackwell/Braman- These four locations took in a few truck loads each over the weekend.  No yields for the region have been reported, but test weights are ranging from 61 lbs. to 62 lbs. per bushel.  No protein has been reported on early cuttings.  Yields are expected to be favorable.

Goltry/Helena- Only a couple of loads were taken in at these locations over the weekend, as the crop was not fully ripe and light rains also hindered progress.   Producers were hopeful to get into the field around Goltry and Helena later today.  Early loads indicate strong test weights and decent yields.

Cherokee- Harvest started on Friday and has been picking up over the weekend. Test weights have ranged from 60 lbs./bu. to 65lbs./bu.  Yields are being reported in the mid 40’s with some higher yields being reported on fields with intensive management.  Proteins have ranged from all over the board in this region from 10% to 12.8%.  This location is hoping for an 11% to 11.5% average.

Burlington- Harvest started on Friday and they are hopeful the region will make great progress over this coming week.  Early reports showing a lot of yields ranging from the mid 30’s to the mid 40’s.  The test weight average has been from 60.5 lbs./bu. to 61.5 lbs./bu.  No protein was reported.

Alva/Selman/Buffalo- Harvest is just getting ready to start in this region.  A little wheat was taken in at Selman and Alva over the weekend, with one truck reported at Buffalo. Test weights and yields look to be favorable but nothing was reported on early cuttings.

Shattuck- Harvest is just getting started in this region.  No yields have been reported, however on the two truck loads of wheat harvested over the weekend, the test weight was 64 lbs./bu.

Enclosed, see the 4 day and 24-Hour rainfall accumulation maps with the 7-day weather forecast for Oklahoma.

The next harvest report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published Wednesday, June 16, 2021. 

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Moving Forward in Most Parts of Southern Oklahoma, Producers in Central Regions Hoping to Start Soon

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

The 2021 wheat harvest is on the move in most areas of Southwest, Oklahoma.  Some places around the Frederick region have been slowed due to heavier rains, but producers are hopeful they will start getting back in fields later tonight or tomorrow.  A large portion of Tillman County received ½ to 3 ½ inches of rain late Sunday evening and early Monday morning.  In other parts of Comanche and Cotton counties where harvest has resumed, test weights have dropped slightly but are still favorable coming in at 60 lbs./bu. or higher.  Other regions in Kiowa, Washita, and Caddo counties are also reporting extremely favorable test weights ranging from 62 to 63 lbs/bu. for the most part with a few being reported as high as 65.5 lbs./bu. Yields in most regions where harvest is being reported are coming in favorable across Southwest Oklahoma.  They are ranging from the mid 30’s to the mid 60’s depending on climate, rainfall and management systems.  We have had a report of one load of wheat being taken in at Clinton and harvest has also started with wheat being taken in at Sentinel, Rocky, Cordell and Apache. Producers have been test cutting East of Okarche and South of Kingfisher where harvest usually leap frogs over Grady and Canadian counties, but as of today, moisture ranges on test cuttings have been reported at 15.5% to 17.4% in the Kingfisher/Canadian county region.  With the predicted forecast of warmer temperatures, producers are hoping they will get into the fields in this area late this afternoon.  Proteins being reported in Southwest, Oklahoma are varying depending on locations, environment and producer management. Regional averages from Southern Oklahoma are currently holding steady at 11.3% to 11.6% based off early reports.

Below are regions where wheat has been taken in prior to Wednesday, June 9, at 12:00 noon CST.

Grandfield/Devol- Harvest was successful this past weekend and combines have started back up in these locations after the rains earlier in the week.  Test weights have dropped from earlier reports last weekend but still are coming in at 60 to 61 lbs./bu.  Yields being reported in the mid 30’s to the mid 50’s.

Frederick/Chattanooga- Harvest was successful this past weekend until heavy rains on Sunday and Monday morning took place.  Producers are hopeful they will get back into the fields around Chattanooga later this afternoon.  The Frederick region, is hopeful harvest will get moving at full speed tomorrow.  Test weights in this region before the rains were being reported at 60 to 62 lbs./bu., with more data available on the next report.  Yields were being reported as favorable in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s for the most part, with some higher yields in the mid 50’s noted.

Altus/Duke- Harvest was successful in this region over the weekend, while light moisture and humidity slowed harvest around Altus.  Producers around Duke have been able to continue cutting and harvest in the Altus area now is moving full speed ahead.  Test weights are coming in higher than some of the earlier harvested wheat, with reports now showing 62 to 64 lbs./bu.  Yields being reported from high 30’s to mid 60’s depending on management systems.

Lone Wolf/Hobart-Wheat harvest continues in this region, as the lighter rains did not delay progress much this week.  Test weights averaging 61 to 63 lbs./bu. Yields being reported from the mid 30’s to mid 50’s depending on location and management.

Roosevelt- Some wheat was taken in over the weekend at this location, but harvest has been at a standstill due to the heavier rains they received earlier in the week.  Early test weights were favorable at 61 to 63 lbs./bu., no yields were reported. Producers are hopeful they will get back into the fields tomorrow.

Sentinel/Rocky/Cordell-Test weights being reported around Sentinel on early cuttings are ranging from 60 to 62 lbs./bu.  Test weights on early cuttings around the Rocky and Cordell regions are ranging from 62 to 65 lbs./bu.  Yields are being reported in the mid 30’s to mid 60’s depending on management and if the wheat was grazed.

Apache- Apache received three loads this morning on first cuttings, test weights on each load were reported at 60lbs./bu. or higher.  No yields were yet reported from this region.

Enclosed, see the 4 day and 24-Hour rainfall accumulation maps with the 7-day weather forecast for Oklahoma.

The next harvest report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published Monday, June 14, 2021.  A regional harvest report and crop update will be made available and published on Friday, June 11, 2021.

Wheat Disease Update – 9 June 2021

This article was written by Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

      During the last two days there have been a couple reports of dark wheat heads being observed in fields.  This is a condition call sooty mold (aka black head mold) (Figure 1). These dark heads are the result of saprophytic (living of dead tissue) or weakly pathogenic fungi growing on the dead tissue in wheat heads.  Reports of this have come from Greg Highfill (Alfalfa County Extension Educator in north central OK) and from Brad Secraw (Cleveland County Extension Educator in central OK).  Additionally, I have observed severe sooty mold in some of the trials around Stillwater.

      Sooty mold occurs when wheat has turned but cannot be harvested in a timely manner.  Wet/humid conditions during a delayed harvest will then promote the fungal growth on wheat heads.  Often wheat that has been subjected to a stress such as freeze, root rot, or drought shows a greater severity of sooty mold than if the wheat had been healthy and not stressed.  This is the case in the top photo in Figure 1.  The darker strips of wheat with sooty mold are the variety Pete, which was hit hard by the late freeze in April.  The lighter, more golden colored heads with much less sooty mold are lines in one of Dr. Carver’s nurseries.  These breeder lines were not nearly as affected by the freeze as was the Pete.  Although grain yield from wheat with sooty mold often is reduced, the sooty mold itself is not the primary cause of that reduce yield.  Rather, it was the stress such as a freeze or root rot that was the primary cause of the reduced yield. 

Figure 1. A field view of sooty mold (black head mold) on wheat at Stillwater, OK on June 9, 2021 (top photo). Note the darker appearance of the wheat heads in the alternating long, solid strips of wheat compared to lighter, more golden colored heads in the middle strip. The bottom two photos show wheat heads with sooty mold. [Photo credits bottom two photos – Left photo; Greg Highfill (Extn Educator, Alfalfa County); photo on right; Brad Secraw (Extn Educator, Cleveland County)].

One additional point to be made is that grain harvested from wheat with severe sooty mold may show a condition known as black point (Figure 2).  Black point is a discoloration of the seed (typically the germ end of the seed) resulting either from infection by various fungi that typically are saprophytic but can occasionally parasitize living tissue, or from a combination of abiotic (environmental) conditions that promote the discoloration without the presence of an organism.  Like sooty mold, black point often is observed when freeze damage has occurred or when harvest was delayed and dead tissue in the heads was heavily colonized by fungi that resulted in sooty mold.  Black point in wheat grain can be a grading factor as the discoloration can result in black flecks in flour milled from such grain.  Additionally, if used as seed wheat, kernels with black point can have reduce germination resulting in lower seedling emergence.  Hence, if wheat showing black point is to be used as seed wheat, it is imperative to check the germination of that seed and to use a seed treatment that controls seed and seedling rots.

Figure 2. Wheat kernels with black point. The wheat kernels to the left and right show typical black point. The kernel in the middle is healthy. Ignore the reddish-pink color in the outer kernels as this is from an applied seed treatment.

FINALLY – This likely will be my (Dr. Bob Hunger) last Wheat Disease update as my last day of work is July 9th.  It has truly been a pleasure to send these updates!! I hope all of you have a great harvest this year and even better ones in the future!!!