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David Marburger

David Marburger

Since April 2016, I have served as the Small Grains Extension Specialist at Oklahoma State University. My research and extension efforts focus on delivering science-based recommendations in order to increase small grains production and profitability for stakeholders throughout Oklahoma and the southern Great Plains.

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Harvest for Oklahoma Wheat 90% Complete

Report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission

 

The Oklahoma Wheat harvest is mostly complete for the Southwest, South Central, Central, West Central, Central, and Northeast parts of the state. In some of these areas, producers are finishing up with their last fields. Harvest continues to move forward in the North Central, Northwest, and Panhandle regions of the state. Across the state, test weights continue to be favorable, with above average proteins reported from the Oklahoma/Texas line to the Oklahoma/Kansas line. Based on reports from elevator managers, this week’s harvest continues to come in with lower than predicted yields from the North Central part of the state. Dryland wheat yields in the Panhandle region being harvested are coming in with higher yields than predicted, but many of those yields are still making in the low 20’s with an occasional dryland yield being reported in the mid 30’s depending on the location. Some of the irrigated wheat around Guymon has been harvested, but no reports on yields have been received. While yields across the state have not been as favorable as the industry would like, overall quality of this crop still looks to be encouraging as producers in the Northern and Panhandle regions of the state work to get the crop out. The USDA June 12th Crop production estimates for Oklahoma are predicting 2 million acres to be harvested with a 26 bushel per acre yield, making the Oklahoma production estimate 52 million bushels for the 2018 crop.

 

Percentages of Harvest Completed Across Oklahoma

Southwest Oklahoma 99% Complete

South Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

West Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

North Central Oklahoma 77% Complete

Northwest Oklahoma 90% Complete

Northeast Oklahoma 99% Complete

Panhandle 50% Complete

Entire State of Oklahoma 90% Complete

 

For more information on winter wheat acreage, yield and production estimates in other states click on the USDA June Crop Production Report listed below.

https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Oklahoma/Publications/Oklahoma_Crop_Reports/2018/spr-crop-prod-06-2018.pdf

 

North Central Oklahoma

 

Enid- Harvest is reported to be 95% complete. Test weights are ranging all over the board, from 56 to 62 lbs./bu. depending on the variety and location. The average test weights for this area to date are 59 to 60 lbs./bu. Proteins are reported to be ranging from 11.5 to as high as 16%. Elevator locations for the most part have been saying that as harvest progresses overall, they will be looking at a 12.5% protein average for the region. Yields have been reported all over the board from the mid teens to the mid 30’s.

Kremlin/Medford/Nardin/Nash/Renfrow- Harvest is 75 to 80% complete depending on the location. Test weights have been averaging 58.5 lbs./bu. for the region. Proteins reported in the 12 to 13% range. Yields are ranging from the low 20’s to the mid 40’s, with a lot of wheat trending more in the mid 20’s to mid 30’s.

Blackwell- Harvest is reported to be 85% complete. Test weights are ranging from 55 to 61 lbs./bu., with an average of 59 lbs./bu. overall. Yields reported in the mid 20’s to mid 30’s.  Proteins have ranged from 11 to 17% with an average coming in at 12.8%.

 

Northwest Oklahoma

 

Alva- Test weights reported in the ranges of 59.5 to 60 lbs./bu. Proteins are averaging 12.5%. Harvest is approximately 99% complete. Yield reports have ranged in the mid-teens to the 30’s depending on location. An occasional yield in the mid 40’s has been reported from time to time.

Shattuck-  Harvest is 80% complete. Test weights are 60 lbs./bu. or above. Yields on the dryland are averaging 10 to 15 bushels per acre. On the irrigated wheat, yields are making in the mid 30’s to the mid 60’s depending on location. The protein average was reported at 13%, although it has not been uncommon to see proteins in the 14 and 15% range. 

 

The Panhandle

 

Buffalo- Harvest did not last long in this region and is 99% complete. Yields have been reported in the mid teens to mid 20’s. Proteins have ranged from 13 to 14%. Most of the wheat was grazed or abandoned in this area due to the drought.

Hooker- Harvest on the dryland wheat is moving in full force, and is estimated 50 to 60 percent complete. Proteins averaging 13%. Test weights averaging 60.5 lbs./bu. Yields reported from 9 to as high as 25 bushels per acre for the most part. One producer reported his field of dryland wheat to have made 37 bushels per acre. No reports on irrigated wheat harvest for this week.

Keyes- Harvest is approximately 30% complete. Test weights have ranged from 57 to 62 lbs./bu. Yields have been reported from as low as 10 to as high as 30 bushels per acre depending on the location. Proteins are averaging 12.5%.

 

Northeast Oklahoma

 

Afton- Harvest is approximately 99% complete. Test weights reported from 60 to 63 lbs./bu.  Proteins ranging from 10 to 13%. This region is averaging 11.5% on protein. Yields reported from the low 30’s to as high as 70 bushels per acre. Overall the yields and quality have been favorable. 

Miami –Harvest is approximately 99% complete. Test weights reported from 60 to 63 lbs./bu.  Proteins ranging from 10 to 12.5%. This region is averaging 11.0% on protein. Yields reported from the low 20’s to as high as 70 bushels per acre. Overall the yields and quality have been favorable.

 

The final harvest report from the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published on Tuesday June 26, 2018.  After this week, harvest reporting will only take place in the Northern and Panhandle regions of the state.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Continues with Majority of Cutting Left in Northern and Panhandle Regions

Report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission

 

The Oklahoma Wheat harvest is winding down in the Southern and Central areas of the state, with combines rolling in most parts of the northern and Panhandle regions. In the far NE part of the state around Afton and Miami, heavy rains have hindered harvest for the next couple days. Moisture was also received in central regions of the wheat belt around Marshall and Guthrie mid-morning this Tuesday. Producers are hopeful we will miss the slight chance of predicted rains tonight and tomorrow. Across the state, test weights have been favorable, with above average protein coming in from the Oklahoma/Texas line to the Oklahoma/Kansas line. Based on reports from elevator managers this week, harvest is coming in as predicted with lower than average yields. The decline in planted wheat acres as well as abandonment from the long-term drought has made this harvest progress extremely fast for producers, custom harvesters, and elevator operators. While the yields have not been as favorable as the industry would like, overall the quality of this crop looks to be encouraging for the milling and baking industries, especially when it comes to protein functionalities. The USDA June 12th Crop Production estimates for Oklahoma were unchanged from the May 10th estimate, predicting 2 million acres to be harvested with a 26 bushel per acre yield making the Oklahoma production estimate 52 million bushels for the 2018 crop.

 

Percentages of Harvest Completed Across Oklahoma

Southwest Oklahoma 99% Complete

South Central Oklahoma 98% Complete

Central Oklahoma 98% Complete

West Central Oklahoma 90% Complete

North Central Oklahoma 55% Complete

Northwest Oklahoma 55% Complete

Northeast Oklahoma 40% Complete

Panhandle 37% Complete on Dryland—No Reports on irrigated Wheat Being Harvested to date! 

Entire State of Oklahoma 77% Complete

 

For more information on winter wheat acreage, yield, and production estimates in other states, click on the USDA June Crop Production Report listed below.

https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Oklahoma/Publications/Oklahoma_Crop_Reports/2018/spr-crop-prod-06-2018.pdf

 

Southwest Oklahoma

 

Grandfield- Wheat harvest is 99.5% complete. Proteins have not been as high in this southern corridor like in other parts of Oklahoma but are still averaging around 11 to 11.5%. Test weights on the wheat have been ranging from 60 to 62 lbs./bu. Yields have ranged all over the board from as low as 15 to as high as 60 bushels per acre, depending on the location. East of Hwy 36, the yields were much higher. West of Hwy 36, yields decline the further west you move. While producers were thankful for the higher reported yields, it is important to note these higher yields will not make up for the losses and lower yields reported in this trade territory of Southwest Oklahoma overall.

Lawton- Wheat harvest is 97% complete. Test weights reported in a range from 60 to 63 lbs./bu. Protein averages reported at 11.5 to 12.5%. Yields reported from 11 to as high as 45 bushels per acre depending on the location in this trade territory.  The Eastern region in this area had some favorable yields, while the area West of Lawton had much lower yields the further west you move.

Sentinel/Rocky- Test weights have ranged from 58 to 63 lbs./bu. The overall average for test weights will range from 60 to 61 lbs./bu. Yields reported to be making anywhere from 15 to the mid- 30’s. No proteins have been reported. Harvest is estimated to be 99% complete in this area.

Clinton- Test weights have ranged from 60 to 62 lbs./bu. One field was reported to come in at 40 bushels per acre while everything else is being reported in the mid 20’s. Protein averages for the area are reported at 13%. Harvest is 75% complete. While yields have been higher than expected, collections will be way down due to abandonment of wheat acres from the drought and for other crops.

 

Central Oklahoma

 

Hinton-  Harvest is 98% complete. Test weights are averaging 60 to 63 lbs./bu. Protein average is reported at 12.5%. Yields for the most part ranging from the low 30’s to the mid 40’s. Crop production is predicted to be way down due to increased cotton and soybean acres.

El Reno- Harvest is 97% complete. Test weights are ranging from 60 to 63 lbs./bu.  Proteins reported from 11.2 to 13.9%. This region is looking at a 12% protein average.  Yields reported to be ranging from 22 to as high as 55 bushels per acre, depending on location and rainfall amounts.

KingfisherHarvest is 98% complete. Test weights reported at a 60 lbs./bu. average.  Yields are reported from as low as 5 to as high as 51 bushels per acre. Protein averages are coming in at 12.5%. Grazing did have an impact on yields in this region. Lower yields or complete abandonment start taking place on the Kingfisher/Blaine county lines, due to the severe impacts of the drought. Foreign material is significantly down from previous years, a much cleaner crop is being reported.

 

North Central Oklahoma

 

Enid- Harvest is reported to be 60% complete. Test weights are ranging all over the board, from 56 to 62 lbs./bu. depending on the variety and location. The average test weights for this area to date are 59 to 60 lbs./bu. Proteins are reported to be ranging from 11.5 to as high as 16%. Elevator locations for the most part have been saying that as harvest progresses overall we will be looking at a 12.5% protein average for the region. Yields have been reported all over the board from the mid teens to the mid 30’s.

Hillsdale- Test weights are ranging from 58 to 62 lbs./bu. Yields reported in the mid 20’s to mid 30’s. A lot of acres in this region have been abandoned due to the drought. 

Kremlin/Medford/Nardin/Nash/Renfrow- Harvest is 35 to 40% complete in these regions. Test weighs have been coming in higher than reported last week, but the current average for the area is 58.9 lbs./bu. Proteins reported in the 12 to 13% range. Yields on the wheat harvest ranging from the low 20’s to the mid 40’s.

Blackwell- Harvest is reported to be 25% complete. Test weights are ranging from 55 to 61 lbs./bu., with an average of 58 lbs./bu. overall. Yields reported in the high 20’s to mid 30’s. Proteins have ranged from 11 to 17% with an average coming in at 12.2%.

 

Northwest Oklahoma

 

Alva- Test weights reported in the ranges of 59.5 to 60 lbs/bu. Proteins are reported as an average at 12.5%. Harvest is approximately 60 to 70% complete. The majority of the wheat that is left is in lower areas that had heavy rains a few weeks ago. In some of those areas it has just started drying out for producers to get into these fields. For the most part yields are ranging in the mid 30’s, with some reports of the occasional yield in the mid 40’s.

Shattuck-  Harvest is 45% complete. Test weights are 60 lbs./bu. or above. Yields on the dryland averaging 10 to 15 bushels per acre. On the irrigated wheat yields are making in the mid 30’s. The protein average was reported at 13%, although it has not been uncommon to see proteins in the 14 and 15% range. 

 

The Panhandle

 

Buffalo- Harvest just got started this week. Yields have been reported in the mid teens to mid 20’s. Proteins have ranged from 13 to 14%. Harvest will not be long in this area as much of the crop has been grazed or destroyed due to the drought.

Hooker- Harvest on the dryland wheat is moving in full force. Harvest on the dryland wheat is estimated 30 percent complete. Proteins averaging 13%. Test weights averaging 60.5 lbs./bu. Yields reported from 9 to as high as 25 bushels per acre for the most part.  One producer reported his field of dryland wheat to have made 37 bushels per acre. No reports on irrigated wheat harvest for this week.

 

Northeast Oklahoma

 

Afton- Harvest is approximately 50% complete. Test weights reported from 60 to 63 lbs./bu. Proteins ranging from 10 to 13%. This region is averaging 11.5% on protein. Yields reported from the low 30’s to as high as 70 bushels per acre. Overall the yields and quality have been favorable. Harvest did come to a stop today with rains that came early this morning. If we miss the rains later tonight  producers are hopeful to be back in the fields in this region over the weekend.

Miami- Harvest is approximately 25% complete. Test weights reported from 60 to 63 lbs./bu.  Proteins ranging from 10 to 12.5%. This region is averaging 11.0% on protein. Yields reported from the low 20’s to as high as 70 bushels per acre. Overall the yields and quality have been favorable. Harvest did come to a stop today with rains that came early this morning. If we miss the rains later tonight producers are hopeful to be back in the fields in this region over the weekend.

 

The next harvest report from the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published on Tuesday June 19, 2018. After this week, wheat harvest reporting for Southern and Central Oklahoma is considered complete. The harvest report next week will only cover North Central, Northeast, Northwest and Panhandle regions.

 

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Moves Across the State from South to North

Report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission

 

The Oklahoma wheat harvest continues to progress in most regions of the state with the exception of far Northwestern and Panhandle areas. Early test cuttings have been accepted at Shattuck this afternoon with reports of one sample at 14.9% moisture.  Elevator managers and producers are hopeful harvest will begin in this region tomorrow. Two weeks since first cuttings were accepted down at Frederick, OK, harvest has been progressing rapidly across the state with the hot dry temperatures. Favorable proteins and test weights continue to be reported across the state, but early reports on test weights in the far northern areas of the state are coming in lower than expected on the first cuttings. Producers and elevator managers are hopeful the test weights will rise in this region and that yields will also be better as harvest progresses (harvest in the Northern regions of the state are being reported anywhere from 5 to 15% completed based on locations). While protein qualities and test weights have been promising for the most part across Oklahoma, lower yields and lack of acres with losses to cotton and other crops continue to make this an extremely fast-moving harvest. In several locations across the central and western corridors of the state from Texas to Kansas, many elevator managers have mentioned they hope to take in 10 percent of what they would in a normal year.  As of today, it looks like the May 10th USDA estimates of the Oklahoma Wheat Crop at 2 million acres with a 26 bushel per acre average for a total of 52 million bushels to be harvested in the state will be right on target. This number could come in lower than anticipated based on the increased reports of abandonment.

 

Southwest Oklahoma

 

Grandfield- Wheat harvest is 95% complete. Proteins have not been as high in this southern corridor like in other parts of Oklahoma but are still averaging around 11 to 11.5%. Test weights on the wheat have been ranging from 60 to 62 lbs./bu. Yields have ranged all over the board from as low as 15 to as high as 60 bushels per acre, depending on the location. East of Hwy 36, the yields were much higher. West of Hwy 36, yields decline the further west you move. While producers were thankful for the higher reported yields, it is important to note these higher yields will not make up for the losses and lower yields reported in this trade territory of Southwest Oklahoma overall.

Duke- Test weights reported in a range from 59 to 60 lbs./bu. Protein averages reported at 13.5%. Yields reported from the mid-teens to the mid 20’s. Harvest reported to be 60% complete.

Gotebo- Test weights reported in a range from 59 to 60 lbs./bu. Protein averages 12.5 to 13%.  Yields reported in the mid-teens to mid-20s. Harvest reported to be 50% complete.

Hobart- Test weights reported to be averaging 60 lbs./bu. Protein averages reported at 12.5 to 13%. Yields reported in the mid-teens to mid-20s. Harvest reported to be 50% complete.

Lone Wolf- Test weights reported at a 61 lbs./bu. average. Protein averages reported at 12.5 to 13%. Yields reported in the mid-teens to mid-20s. Harvest reported to be 50% complete.

Carter- Test weights reported at a 60 lbs./bu. average. Protein averages reported at 12.5 to 13%. Yields reported in the mid-teens to mid-20s. Harvest reported to be 50% complete.

Sentinel/Rocky- Test weights have been averaging 62 lbs./bu. Yields reported to be making anywhere from 13 to 30 bushels per acre. No proteins have been reported.  Harvest is estimated to be 35 to 45% complete in this area.

In most of these locations of Southwest Oklahoma, elevators are hoping to take in 10% of what they normally would due to the severe drought and loss of wheat acres to cotton acres.

 

Central Oklahoma

 

Okarche- Test weights are averaging 60 lbs./bu. Protein average is reported at 12.79%. A lot of 13 to 14% proteins have been reported, with some as high as 16.5%. Yields for the most part ranging from the mid-20s to the mid-30s with the occasional report of 40 or higher. Harvest around Okarche reported to be 50 to 60% complete.

Kingfisher/Omega- Harvest for this area is 60 to 65% completed. Test weights reported from 58 to 62 lbs./bu. Yields are reported from the mid-20s to the mid-30s. Protein averages are coming in at 12.5%. Grazing did have an impact on yields in this region. Lower yields or complete abandonment start taking place on the Kingfisher/Blaine county lines, due to the severe impacts of the drought. Foreign material is significantly down from previous years, a much cleaner crop is being reported.

Loyal- Harvest in this area is 40% complete. Test weights averaging a strong 60 lbs./bu. Yields are making in the mid-20s to the low-30s for the most part.  Protein averages coming in at 12.5%. Foreign material is significantly down in this region from previous years, a much cleaner crop is being reported.

 

North Central Oklahoma

 

Enid- Test weights are ranging all over the board, from 56 to 62 lbs./bu. depending on the variety and location. Proteins are reported to be ranging from 11.5 to as high as 16%.  Elevator locations for the most part have been saying that it has not been uncommon to see 13 to 14% protein averages for specific locations, although these numbers might not be completely representative of the overall 2018 crop since only 5 to 25% of the crop has been harvested to date in this area. Yields have been reported all over the board from the mid teens to the mid-30s.

Kremlin/Medford/Nardin/Nash/Renfrow- Early reports from what has been harvested in these locations have test weights ranging from 54.5 to 60 lbs./bu. Currently the averages from the region are coming in around that 57.5 to 58.5 lbs./bu (harvest is just starting with 5% complete). Elevators and producers in the area are hopeful test weights will pick up with the better quality wheat. Proteins  reported in the 12 to 13% range. Yields on the early harvested wheat ranging from 15 to 30 bushels per acre.

 

Northwest Oklahoma

 

Alva- Test weights reported in the ranges of 57 to 59 lbs/bu. Proteins are reported in the 12 to 13% range.

No actual yields have been reported although it is expected this area will see ranges from the mid-teens to the mid-30s depending on location and variety. It is predicted that 15 to 20% of this region is harvested.

Shattuck- At the time of this report on Tuesday morning, harvest had not started, but one sample was tested at 14.9% moisture. The test weight on that sample was 60 lbs./bu. The protein was reported at 12%. Producers are hopeful harvest will begin late Tuesday evening or on Wednesday, June 6th.

 

The Panhandle

Harvest has not begun in this region, but around the Buffalo, Guymon and Hooker regions, harvest is predicted to start on the dry-land wheat by this coming weekend.

Wheat Disease Update – May 31, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

 

Wednesday through Friday (May 23-25) of last week, I was in western Oklahoma (Clinton area) and at field days in the panhandle at Goodwell and Hooker (Texas County), Keyes (Cimarron County) and Balko (Beaver County). The only disease observed of significance was indicated by white heads in fields. Often this was the result of Fusarium (dryland) root rot as reported in the last update (May 17, 2018). In fields showing this root rot, the white heads and white tillers were scattered across the field with an incidence ranging from low to moderate (Figure 1). Other fields in the panhandle exhibited large areas of not just white heads and tillers, but also white secondary tillers that had not headed. In these fields, some root rot was found, but Dr. David Marburger (OSU Small Grains Extension Specialist) and I believe that many of the white tillers/secondary tillers were the result of drought, freeze, or a combination of both. Often such tillers showed clean lower stems with no indication of root rot. We believe these secondary tillers were completely white without heading because they were sloughed off as a result of the stress from drought, freeze, or a combination of both. We suspect that more of these whiteheads will show in the coming week in northwestern OK and the panhandle, but the wheat crop is quickly turning and the whiteheads may not be as evident.

 

This likely is the last update I will be sending out this season as harvest in the southern half of Oklahoma has started with the crop quickly maturing in the northern half.

 

Figure 1.  White heads of wheat due to root rot. Typically the white heads are scattered in a field and can range from a low to high incidence. Notice in the middle photo just a few tillers of an individual plant are affected. [Credit for middle photo to Brad Babek, County Educator, Washita County]

fig1a.5.31    fig3a5.17fig3b5.17

2018 Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Begins in South and Central Oklahoma over the Memorial Day Weekend

Report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission

 

Harvest for the 2018 season has begun in Oklahoma with combines rolling in the southwestern part of the state over the Memorial Day weekend. While much of the crop has been abandoned due to severe drought conditions in western regions of the state, some elevator locations in the south-central corridor have been reporting decent yields and favorable qualities on the wheat that is being harvested (the south-central corridor received rains in early spring that were timely). We have also had reports of wheat harvest beginning in central regions of the state around the Okarche, Kingfisher, Loyal, and Omega areas. While early reports are showing favorable proteins and test weights on the wheat being harvested, many elevator locations in the western part of the state predict this will be one of the fastest wheat harvests they have ever seen. This is based on all the acres abandoned due to the severe drought conditions that have plagued this part of the state since October. It is important to note we have also seen a decline in wheat acres due to increased cotton, sesame, and soybean plantings (one elevator location mentioned they hope to take in 10% of what they would in a normal year due to the drought and increased plantings of other crops). Producers are also hopeful the predicted storms tonight and Wednesday will pass thru without causing any damage.

 

Grandfield- Wheat harvest has just started in this region with most of the custom cutters now in town. On the wheat that was harvested over the weekend, test weights were running at 62 to 63 lbs./bu. Early protein reports were showing ranges from 11.5 to 12%. Yields from some of the producers have been reported better than expected with some reports of 40 to 50 bushel averages.

 

Frederick- Early reports from this region before the weekend had reports of one load of wheat coming in at 12.7% moisture, 62 lbs./bu., and protein at 12%. No yields from the weekend have been reported, although it is predicted that harvest will move rather quickly with little wheat harvested based on abandonment in the western half.

 

Snyder- This region took in over 85,000 bushels of grain over the weekend, and harvest is just starting to move at full speed. Reports so far on test weights have been exceptional with most of the wheat weighing 60 lbs./bu. or better. There have been a couple loads where weights were running 58 lbs./bu. The quality of the wheat has not had much dockage. Yields in this area have been reported all over the board ranging from the low 20’s to mid 40’s. No proteins have been reported.

 

Altus/Lone Wolf- Test weights on the wheat in this region have been averaging 60 to 62 lbs./bu. Proteins on the wheat to this point have been ranging from 10.5 to 12.5%, with more of the wheat coming in at that 11.5 to 12% protein range. No yields have been reported, although it is predicted that harvest will move extremely fast due to decline in planted acres of wheat and abandonment from the drought.

 

Sentinel- As of Tuesday morning, one sample was tested, but the moisture was too high.  Producers are hopeful they will be able to start harvest within the next day or two in this region.

 

Clinton- As of Tuesday morning, no wheat had been taken in this region. 

 

Hinton-  As of Tuesday morning, no wheat had been taken in this region.

 

Union City- One sample was taken at 14% moisture as of Tuesday morning, so producers are  hopeful that within in the next day harvest will get rolling in this region.

 

Banner- As of Tuesday morning, no wheat had been taken in this region.

 

Okarche- Wheat harvest has begun in this region on Memorial Day, with a few loads received. Test weights on the earlier harvested wheat was lower with ranges from the mid 50’s to 58 lbs./bu. Protein averages on earlier reports are coming in much better than the past couple years with ranges of 12 to 14% being reported. No yields were reported at this time.

 

Kingfisher- Harvest began over the weekend in this region with test weights averaging anywhere from 60 to 62lbs./bu. Proteins have been reported from as low as 10.9% to as high as 14%. Most of the proteins are coming in at 11.5% or higher on this earlier harvested wheat. Some yields have been reported to be making in the mid 40’s on what has been received so far. Keep in mind, much of the wheat has been abandoned west of the Kingfisher trade territory due to the persistent drought conditions that have existed since October.

 

Omega- Harvest has begun in this region on some of the earlier planted and heavily grazed wheat. Yields on the earlier wheat were reported to be making in the low 20’s.  Test weights were being reported at 56 to 58 lbs./bu.  Protein on one load of wheat was reported at 17.4%, and that variety was Doublestop CL+.  Producers are hopeful they will get into wheat that have better test weights and yields in this area towards the end of the week.

Wheat Disease Update – May 17, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

Although not as obvious as in previous weeks, powdery mildew is still hanging on in Oklahoma, and has even moved up onto the heads in some fields. One such field is my foliar fungicide trial here at Stillwater. Examining this trial yesterday revealed many of the lower heads were lightly to moderately infected with powdery mildew (Figure 1). This is one of the few times I have seen powdery mildew move onto wheat heads in Oklahoma. It is important to note that these infected heads are the ones produced on the lower tillers beneath the main, taller tillers. I did not find any powdery mildew on any of the higher heads. This appears to me to be a light to moderate infection severity, but I have not had a lot of experience with powdery mildew on wheat heads, so this is just my estimation. Exactly how much of an impact this powdery mildew will have on yield and test weight may be hard to determine because the level of powdery mildew on these heads seemed to be fairly constant across all treatments.

 

Figure 1.  Powdery mildew on wheat heads in a foliar fungicide trial near Stillwater, OK. Note lower heads in background also show powdery mildew, but there was no powdery mildew on higher heads.

fig1a5.17  fig1b5.17

 

Yesterday, I also observed leaf rust on scattered leaves in the foliar fungicide trial at Stillwater (mostly in the not-sprayed control plots). Typically this was just a couple pustules scattered on a leaf, but there were a few leaves as shown in Figure 2. If you enlarge Figure 2, you can see what looks like the remnant of stripe rust stripes with a few telia (small black dots) associated with the stripes. There also appears to be a pustule or two of powdery mildew. As indicated, leaves infected to this level were not common, but this does indicate that leaf rust is starting to appear and may increase a bit over the next 7-10 days. However, this is a late infection as this trial is at late milk to early soft dough. Hence, the leaf rust will have only a minimal impact on yield even if it does increase significantly.

 

Figure 2.  Leaf rust on a flag leaf at Stillwater, OK on May 16, 2018. Note that some inactive stripe rust also is visible in the center of the leaf (you will have to enlarge the photo to see this) but it appears to be “shutting down” as indicated by the small, black telia. A lesion or two of powdery mildew also is present.

fig25.17

 

Finally, Brad Babek (County Educator, Washita County in southwestern Oklahoma) reported increasing areas of white heads in wheat fields (Figure 3). In cases where I have observed such heads this year, it has been due to dryland (Fusarium) root rot. Typically the roots will be rotted and often the lowest part of the stem is discolored (dark) and often there is a pinkish-purple color associated with the lower tiller and roots. Splitting such a tiller often reveals a stem filled with white or pinkish-white fungal growth (Figure 3).

 

Figure 3.  Whiteheads on wheat tillers in Washita County (western Oklahoma). Photo and report credit to Brad Babek, County Educator, Washita County.

fig3a5.17fig3b5.17

Wheat Disease Update – May 5, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

This past week I was at field days in southwestern Oklahoma (Apache and Altus), and northeastern Oklahoma (Afton). I did not see a single leaf or stripe rust pustule at any location. Wheat in southwestern OK ranged from at flowering to kernel formation, and typically was short (less than knee high). There were a few exceptions to this, namely a couple fields near Apache that had been planted on summer fallow ground. Wheat in these two fields looked good with some powdery mildew on the low to mid-canopy. There also was evidence of root rot (white heads) that was caused by Fusarium (Figure 1). This root rot was at a low incidence. By contrast, wheat in northeastern OK was at flowering and typically was over knee-high, thick, and with high yield potential. On many varieties, powdery mildew was heavy in the low and mid-canopy, and in a few instances also was present on the flag leaf (Figure 2). Besides powdery mildew, Septoria leaf blotch was heavy throughout the lower leaves of most varieties. In northeastern OK it appears that if a fungicide is going to be sprayed, that needs to be applied as soon as possible.

 

Based on my observations this past week and the recent report from Dr. Clark Neeley (see below), it appears that rust pressure is low across Texas and Oklahoma. Based on Dr. Neeley’s report, it appears that leaf rust has started to appear, but is still somewhat limited. Hence, although there still is time for the rusts (especially leaf rust) to impact Oklahoma, it does not appear there will be an early season (during heading) high rust pressure as in most years. I still would be watchful and if you have a variety known to be susceptible to leaf rust with good yield potential (>about 30 bu/acre) I recommend considering a fungicide application. Be sure however, that your wheat has not matured past the allowed time (as indicated on the label) for the fungicide you apply. Additional information related to foliar fungicides can be found on the fungicide label and in OSU Current Reports 7668, Foliar Fungicides and Wheat Production in Oklahoma, which is available at:

http://wheat.okstate.edu/wheat-management/diseasesinsects/CR-7668web2018.pdf.

 

Reports from other states:

Texas – 4-30-2018; Dr. Clark Neeley; Small Grains/Oilseed Extn Specialist; Texas A&M AgriLife Extension.  “I was attending field days across Central Texas last week and saw mostly leaf rust as I travelled around. Pressure was strong at Thrall, McGregor and Temple, TX, but wheat is pretty far along in all three locations. Mostly in the milk and soft dough stage. I was in a variety trial and producer’s field in Abbott, TX just north of Waco and leaf rust was nearly undetectable despite the field only receiving a Tilt fungicide application at topdress. Stripe rust was still active on ‘Patton’ border there, but teliospores were appearing and thus was shutting down. Did not find any stripe rust in any of the trial entries. I found no or negligible amounts of stripe rust on trial entries at all locations except McGregor. I did find low levels of stripe rust there on flag leaves of HRWW varieties ‘TAM 304’ and ‘WB 4303’ and SRWW variety ‘USG 3120’. Will be at field days later this week and the following week in the Rolling Plains and Northeast Texas and will try to post updates then for those regions.”

 

Figure 1.  Fusarium (dryland) root rot observed on a wheat tiller from a variety demo near Altus, OK. Note the reddish-purple color near the tiller base with fuzzy reddish-purple fungal growth also present inside the split stem (bottom photo).

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Figure 2.  Powdery mildew on the flag leaf of a wheat plant in the variety trial near Afton, OK.

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Wheat Disease Update – April 26, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

 

Although reports of powdery mildew continue to come in from around the state, perhaps the more important news is that other foliar diseases have started to become active. On April 24, Septoria tritici blotch (Figure 1) was prevalent on lower leaves throughout the variety trial near Walters, OK. Walters is located in southwestern Oklahoma about 20 miles south of Lawton and 10 miles north of the Texas border. Although interesting, Septoria tritici blotch is not the disease of concern as in this trial there also was active leaf rust on lower leaves (Figure 2) and stripe rust on the leaves just below the flag leaf. Dr. Brett Carver (OSU Professor/Wheat Breeder) and Branden Watson (OSU PaSS Graduate Student) also reported active stripe rust at various levels in trials located near Chickasha, OK in central Oklahoma (Figure 3). The photo from Dr. Carver (the right photo in Figure 3) shows much more severe stripe rust than was seen near Walters. These observations indicate that both stripe and leaf rust are increasing through southern and central Oklahoma. This activity will increase through the coming weeks as the forecast indicates continued moisture (rains and dew) coupled with moderate temperature. Wheat in southern Oklahoma was approaching or was actively flowering, so the option of using a fungicide to protect yield potential either is at hand or may be too late. Typically foliar fungicides should be applied for wheat rust control between flag leaf emergence and complete head emergence (Feekes’ growth stages 8 to 10.5). Some fungicides (e.g., Aproach, Headline, Nexicor, Priaxor, and Twinline) are so labeled. However, some fungicides (Tilt, Quilt Xcel, and Trivapro) are labeled for a later application (Feekes 10.5.4, which is the end of flowering with the kernel watery ripe). Many others no longer have a growth stage deadline, but rather are limited by a pre-harvest restriction. That is, there must be a certain number of days that elapse between application and harvest. For some fungicides (Caramba, Folicur, Proline 480, and Prosaro) this is 30 days. For Absolute Maxx, it is 35 days, and for Aproach Prima, it is 45 days. For some fungicides it is a combination of growth stage and days between application and harvest. For specific information, please consult the label for the fungicide. Most fungicides labeled for wheat rust control must be applied by the start of flowering (Feekes’ growth stage 10.5). The only fungicides I know of that have a label allowing for a later application are Tilt, Quilt Xcel, and Trivapro, which can be applied up to Feekes’ 10.5.4 (end of flowering with the kernel watery ripe). In addition to these application deadlines, there often are required pre-harvest intervals so you must allow for a specific number of days to elapse between application of the fungicide and harvest.  For specific information, please consult the label for the fungicide. Additional information related to foliar fungicides also can be found in OSU Current Reports 7668, Foliar Fungicides and Wheat Production in Oklahoma, which is available at: http://wheat.okstate.edu/wheat-management/diseasesinsects/CR-7668web2018.pdf.

 

Figure 1.  Septoria leaf blotch on lower wheat leaf in the variety trial near Walters, OK.

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Figure 2.  Leaf rust on lower wheat leaves near Walters, OK on April 24, 2018.

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Figure 3.  Stripe rust on a wheat leaf (not a flag leaf) near Chickasha, OK on April 24, 2018 (top photo credit to Mr. Branden Watson; bottom photo credit to Dr. Brett Carver).

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Wheat Disease Update – April 13, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

Powdery mildew (Figure 1) continued to be the primary wheat foliar disease this past week in Oklahoma. Around Stillwater, I have seen powdery mildew on the lower and mid-leaves with severities reaching 90% on the lower leaves. A preponderance of powdery mildew also was indicated by the scouting reports sent in from counties across the central tier of Oklahoma to Zack Meyer (Extension Educator; Kingfisher County) where mildew was reported in Washita and Kingfisher Counties at a light (<25%) severity on lower and mid-leaves. Across the northern tier of counties in Oklahoma, powdery mildew was reported to Josh Bushong (Area Extension Agronomy Specialist; northwest district) from Noble and Garfield Counties at light and heavy (>25%) severities on the lower and mid-leaves. Wheat in central Oklahoma was reported at growth stages 8-9 (flag leaf emerging to flag leaf fully emerged). In northern Oklahoma, wheat was extremely variable with growth stages from 2-8 (tillering to flag leaf emerging) being reported. Again, I want to thank all the educators that participated in this pilot program for reporting powdery mildew, leaf rust and stripe rust, and I would encourage more participation to facilitate the warning of these three foliar diseases of wheat.

Figure 1.  Severe powdery mildew on lower wheat leaves.

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There were not any reports this last week regarding foliar diseases from Texas, and there still have not been any significant reports of stripe or leaf rust across Oklahoma. There was one report of stripe rust in south central Oklahoma from Anderson Farms located near Ardmore, OK. As you can see in Figure 2, the lower leaf shows a heavy infection of active stripe rust while the top leaf shows a heavily infected leaf that has transitioned to the dormant (telial) spore stage of stripe rust. This happens as temperature rises with both day and night temperature being important. Typically day temperature needs to consistently be above about 75-80 F and night temperature about about 65 F. This transition along with very limited reports of stripe rust in Texas and Oklahoma indicate that stripe rust should not be a major factor in wheat this year in Oklahoma. Leaf rust could still develop, but inoculum will need to increase, and to date, there has not been widespread weather (cool and moist) that favors either rust.

 

Figure 2.  Active wheat stripe rust (lower leaf) and stripe rust that has transitioned to the telial (dormant) stage on wheat in south-central Oklahoma.  (Photo credit: Anderson Farms near Ardmore, OK).

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The only other observation this week has been “spots” of barley yellow dwarf as reported last week. However, after the recent freeze events, these barley yellow dwarf “spots” are more difficult to discern because there is widespread burning of leaf tips from the freeze, which has a masking effect.