Planting wheat in hot and dry soils

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

With severe dry conditions and high temperatures in our state, it is good to consider the possible effects of high temperature and drought on wheat germination and early growth. As of September 19, soil temperature was in the 80’s F across the state and reached 97 F in some areas (Figure 1). Wheat can germinate in soil temperatures from 40 F to 99 F, but temperatures from 54 F to 77 F are optimal.

Figure 1. Soil temperature across Oklahoma. Figure courtesy Oklahoma Mesonet.

Wheat germination and emergence in HOT soils

Is the variety I am planting high-temperature germination sensitive?

High-temperature germination sensitivity is a more elaborate way of saying that some wheat varieties do not germinate well in hot soil conditions. This is not to say that the seed will not germinate, but it may not germinate until the soil temperature has lowered. Keep in mind too that this sensitivity can vary from year to year. For example, a sensitive variety like Ruby Lee may germinate fine in 90°F soils one year and only produce a 10% stand in the same soil conditions the next. When sowing early, it is best to plant varieties first that do not have high-temperature sensitivity (e.g., Duster, Gallagher). Soil temperatures typically begin to cool by about September 20 due to lower air temperatures and/or rainfall events. However, our summer temperatures seem to be sticking around for longer this year. Waiting until at least mid-September to plant sensitive varieties can help reduce the risk of this issue. A high temperature germination sensitivity rating for wheat varieties can be found in the OSU Fact Sheet (available by clicking here). An updated version of this factsheet will be published soon.

Coleoptile Length

Hot soil conditions at sowing also reduce coleoptile length. The coleoptile is the rigid, sheath-like structure that protects the first true leaf and aids it in navigating and reaching the soil surface. Once the coleoptile breaks the soil surface, the coleoptile will stop growing, and the first true leaf will emerge. If the coleoptile fails to reach the soil surface, the first true leaf will emerge below ground and take on an accordion-like appearance (Figure 2A-B). If this happens, the plant will die.

Figure 2A and 2B. Example of two different wheat seedlings in which the coleoptile failed to break the soil surface. The first true leaf emerged below the soil surface and resulted in this accordion-like appearance.

The coleoptile length for most wheat varieties today can allow for the seed to be safely planted up to 1.5 inches deep. Under hot soil conditions though, the coleoptile length tends to be decreased. Therefore, “dusting in” early-sown wheat at ¾ to 1 inch depth and waiting on a rain event may result in more uniform emergence than trying to plant into soil moisture at a deeper depth, if soil moisture is not available in the top 1 to 1.5 inches of the soil profile. A rating for coleoptile length for wheat varieties can be found in the OSU Fact Sheet PSS-2142 Wheat Variety Comparison. We are also working on updating this.

Wheat germination and emergence in DRY soils

The most important physiological requirement for wheat to germinate and sustain the developing seedling is soil water. Therefore, planting decisions should be based on a combination of available soil moisture and expected rainfall. In addition, other factors such as adequate seeding depth, sowing date, soil fertility, seed treatment, seed quality, etc., should be considered to guarantee good crop establishment. For more information, check the materials on our website.

Wheat seed needs a minimum water content of 35 to 45% of its dry weight to initiate germination, and germination will be more complete as moisture levels increase. Dry soils can still maintain a relative humidity of 99%, which can provide enough moisture for seeds to germinate. It might just take longer than with free-moisture availability. My concern with the current situation in Oklahoma is the severe drought we are in and the lack of rain in the forecast. In some cases, we could have enough moisture to start the germination process in some regions of the state, but seedling emergence and growth could be compromised if we do not see any rain soon.

What happens if the soil completely dries out before wheat emergence?

There are three phases during the germination process: water absorption, activation when the seed coat is ruptured, and visible germination when the radicle emerges, followed by the seminal roots and coleoptile. These processes will start and stop depending on soil moisture availability. Thus, if the soil dries out before the roots and shoots are visible, the seed remains viable, and germination will be paused and continue once water is available. However, if the soil dries out after those structures are emerged (approximately 4-5 days after germination has begun), the seedling may not tolerate the lack of water, resulting in incomplete or loss of stand.

What should I do then? Choose your battle!

The optimal time for planting wheat in central Oklahoma is around mid-September for a dual-purpose system or around mid-October for a grain-only system (Figure 3). With the current forecast, we are planning to wait another 7-10 days to decide on our dual-purpose and forage trials. There are different ways we can go about it, but we must remember that there is always risk involved when planting wheat in dry and hot soil conditions.

Figure 3. Forage and grain yield potential in relation to the day of the year. Every 1,000 kg/ha is equal to approximately 900 lb/acre or 15 bu/acre. Ideal planting dates for dual-purpose wheat in Oklahoma are mid-September (i.e., approximately day 260). Planting for grain-only should occur at least 2-3 weeks after dual-purpose planting (i.e., mid-October or approximately day 285).

If you decide to dust in your wheat and wait for a rainfall event to drive germination, watch your seeding depth. The optimum seeding depth to plant wheat is about 1-1.5” deep. We typically do not have as many issues with winterkill in Oklahoma as in more northern states, so I am comfortable with dusting in at about 0.75 – 1” deep. Planting at 0.5” or less is too shallow in most circumstances. Also, there is always a chance for a pounding rainfall event and subsequent soil crusting, which makes it difficult for the coleoptile to push through the soil surface and may result in poor emergence. Fields with stubble cover may be less affected and reduce the risk of soil crusting. If we receive light rain in the following weeks, that could cause wheat to emerge, but it may not be enough for wheat to continue growing. Most of the fields do not have good subsoil moisture, either.

If subsoil moisture is available and you decide to plant deeper to reach moisture, be careful with the coleoptile length of your variety, and make sure it has a long-enough coleoptile that will allow emergence if conditions are favorable. Consider increasing seeding rate to compensate for reduced emergence, which is prone to occur in this situation.

Should we wait for rain to plant then? This is a farm-by-farm call and it depends on which source of risk you find most comfortable. Personally, I would rather plant my wheat in the optimal planting window and adequate seeding depth than waiting for a rain that may take too long to happen or missing my optimal planting window. If the latter is the case, consider bumping seeding rate to try to compensate for the reduced time for tillering (especially in a grain-only system). Planting wheat at optimal time allows for more time for root growth in seedlings, helping the crop to establish more quickly under dry conditions and possibly help the plant to scavenge for water that is available deeper in the soil profile.

Are there any specific agronomic traits that could help wheat seedling growth under water stress?

Traits that will help with seedling growth in dry conditions are coleoptile length potential, which allows to plant a little deeper in moisture and good emergence (if deep planting is the practice of your choice). There are indications that sowing wheat varieties with larger seed may help to reduce the negative effects of drought during early growth (Mian and Nafziger, 1994). In general, the greater reserves of larger seed result in faster germination and crop establishment by increasing root growth and tiller production. Keep in mind, however, there are varieties with small seed size that germinate more rapidly than larger seeded varieties, owing to their differential response to available moisture.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest At 95% Complete

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest is wrapping up in the Northern and Panhandle regions of the state. Harvest has been hindered in spots due to rain showers over the past 5 days in the Panhandle, Northwest and North Central Oklahoma.  Rain showers this afternoon across the Panhandle and Northern Oklahoma will slow progress of completion.  (Note: Quality of the crop has not changed on what was previously reported from last week.) Sprout damage being reported in the state from regions hit by heavy rains is accounting for approximately 5 to 10% of the crop.  It is important to note much of the crop that has sprout damage is also reporting minimal numbers in that 5 to 7% range.  When looking at the averages for blending purposes it seems sprout is not going to be as big an issue as previously thought.  Proteins across the state are favorable with averages coming in between 12 to 13% in most places.  Yields are ranging all over the board from the low teens to mid-20’s in Southwest, Oklahoma. In South Central Oklahoma, yields being reported from 10 bushels per acre to the mid 30’s. Yields in central and Northern Oklahoma are being reported as higher ranging from 15 bushels per acre to as high as 65 bushels per acre.  In the Northern tier of the state where yields are better, regions are still looking at averages in the high 20’s to mid-30’s.  It is also important to note several areas in Northwest Oklahoma up by Cherokee and Burlington had severe drought and large portions of that region will not be harvested, which will also have major impact on statewide bushels that are taken in.  Test weight average in Southern and Central Oklahoma will be 58 pounds per bushel.  Test weight averages in Northern Oklahoma and in the Panhandle will be higher falling in the 59 pound to 61 pound per bushel range depending on location.  The Oklahoma Wheat Commission is now calling Oklahoma wheat harvest 95% complete. Due to lack of harvest taking place on the minimal amount left to harvest with the rains this week and the 4th of July holiday a final harvest report from the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published on Wednesday, July 6, 2022.

See definitions of classes and what they are used for on the next page.

**Hard Red Winter Wheat-Versatile, with excellent milling and baking characteristics for pan bread, Hard Red Winter is also a choice wheat for Asian noodles, hard rolls, flat breads, general purpose flour and cereal.

**Soft Red Winter Wheat- A versatile weak-gluten wheat with excellent milling and baking characteristics, Soft Red Winter is suited for cookies, crackers, pretzels, pastries and flat breads.

Southwest

Grandfield/Devol/Chattanooga/Lawton- Grandfield is 99% complete, Devol is 99% complete, Chattanooga is 99% complete, Lawton is reported 99% complete. Test weights in this region ranging from 58-60 pounds per bushel. Yields ranging in the low teens to mid-20’s. Proteins ranging from the 11.5% to 12.5%. No sprout damage reported from these locations.

Frederick- Harvest in this region is 99% complete. Test weights ranging from 60 to 61 pounds/bushel.  Proteins ranging from 12 to 12.5% range. Yields being reported from low teens to high twenties, averaging in the low 20’s.

Altus/Duke/Carter- Harvest in this region reported as 99% done. Test weights now trending 56-59 pounds per bushel compared to earlier cuttings making 59 to 60 pounds per bushel.   Yields reported from 5 bushel an acre to mid-20’s. Proteins ranging from 13% to 16%.

Lone Wolf/Hobart- Harvest in these regions is reported at 99% complete.  Test weights being reported from 55 to 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields ranging from low teens to mid-20’s.  Proteins reported making from 13% to 16%. 

South Central

Apache- Wheat harvest is moving along in this region and is considered 99% complete.  Test weights have been ranging from 57 pounds to 58 pounds per bushel for the most part.  On the intensive management wheat, they are seeing some 60-pound test weights.   Yields for the most part are ranging from 10 to 35 bushels per acre depending on location, management and variety.

Chickasha- Harvest in this region 99% complete.  Yields are doing much better than expected based on all the heavy rains, high winds and hail damage that occurred.   Test weights ranging from 58 to 59 pounds per bushel. Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-30’s.  Some minor sprout damage is being reported but not as bad as expected.  Some producers have had 20 to 40% hail damage losses.

Western Oklahoma

Sentinel/Rocky- Harvest has made great progress over the weekend and is reported at 99% complete.   Test weights reported in the 56 to 60 pounds per bushel range. Yields being reported from 14 to 28 bushels per acre.  Proteins ranging from 13% to 17% depending on variety and management practices.

Hinton- This region is reported at 99% complete.  Yields are doing better than expected after all the storms that hit prior to last week.  Yields ranging in the mid 30’s, test weights averaging 60.5 pounds.  Proteins ranging from 10% to 17% with a 13.5% average.

Central Oklahoma

El Reno- They are reporting 99% harvested in this region. Yields are being reported from the low 20’s to the low 40’s depending on variety and management.  Test weights ranging from 57 to 59.5 pounds per bushel.  Protein ranging from 11% to 14.5%

Kingfisher/OmegaHarvest in this region reported to be 99% complete. Test weights with ranges reported from 57 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Yields averaging in the high 20’s to low 30’s. Proteins have ranged from 10% to 15%, seeing a lot in the 11.5% to 12.5% range.

Reeding- Harvest in this region reported 99% complete. Test weights with ranges from 57 to 59 pounds per bushel being reported. Yields averaging mid-teens to low 30’s depending on variety and management. Proteins ranging from 11% to 12%.

Loyal- Harvest in this region reported at 99% complete.  Test weights averaging 57 to 59 pounds per bushel.  Yields on early harvested wheat making in the low 20’s to low 40’s.  Protein ranging from 11.5% to 12.5% on early samples.

Northwest OK

Shattuck/Fort Supply-This region being reported at 96% complete. Test weights ranging from 57 to 62 pounds per bushel depending on variety and management.  Yields ranging from 5 bushels to 25 bushels per acre.  Proteins are ranging from 12% to 14%.

Burlington- Harvest in this region reported at 99% complete. A large area in this region will not be harvested due to the severe drought.  On the crop that will be harvested, test weight for this region is averaging 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-40’s on the wheat that will be harvested depending on where moisture was received in a timely manner and management practices.  Proteins ranging from 12% to 13%.

Helena/Goltry- Harvest in this region 98% complete.  Yields reported from the mid-teens to mid 30’s. Yields have increased as harvest has progressed as producers have gotten into better wheat. Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Proteins are averaging 13%.

Northern Oklahoma

Pond Creek/Lamont- This area reported to be 95% complete.  Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel. Yields being reported in the low 30’s to mid-40’s. Proteins ranging from 12% to 16%.

Medford/Deer Creek-Producers in this region are moving forward and harvest is reported 95% complete. Test weights on early cuttings ranging from 58 to 61 pounds per bushel.  Yields in this region have been reported to be making better because of timely rains.  The yields are ranging from low 30’s to mid-40’s.   Some reports on management intensive wheat to be making in the high 60’s. Proteins have been ranging from 11% to 16%.

Perry/Tonkawa/Ponca City/Blackwell Harvest reported at 96% complete. Test weights ranging from 58 to 61 pounds per bushel. Protein averages around 12 to 13%.  Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-40’s with some areas reporting higher yields on management intensive wheat.

Northeast & Eastern Oklahoma

Afton/Miami/Wetumka/Webber Falls Afton is 95% complete, Miami is 85% complete. Wetumka and Webber Falls is at 95% complete.  Test weightson both the Hard Red Winter (HRW) and Soft Red Winter (SRW) wheat is ranging from 60 pounds to 65 pounds per bushel.  Yields on both the HRW and SRW ranging from 30 bushels to 65 bushels per acre, depending on variety and management practices.  No proteins reported at this time, no sprout damage has been reported for wheat in this region.

Panhandle

Balko- Dryland harvest is 95% complete, irrigated wheat harvest is 85% complete. The dryland wheat in parts of this region are doing better than anticipated with reports ranging from mid-teens to low 40’s.   Irrigated wheat in this region ranging from mid 40’s to the mid 80’s with higher yields than expected given the year.  Test weights ranging from 62 to 64 pounds per bushel. Proteins averaging 12.5%

HookerHarvest on the dryland wheat is progressing with 95% of the dryland wheat being harvested. Harvest on the irrigated wheat reported at 85% complete.  Yields on the dryland wheat making from 5 bushels per acre to in the mid 20’s depending on location.  Yields on the early irrigated wheat not favorable with reports on early cuttings making in the low to mid 40’s, with a few reports of some making in the mid 60’s  to low 70’s.   Test weights on the dryland wheat weighing 63 pounds to 64 pounds per bushel, nothing weighing less than 60 pounds per bushel on the irrigated wheat.  Protein for this region being reported at 12.5%.

 Below see the Heat Maximum and Air Temperatures at 2:40 p.m. on Monday, June 27th along with the radar of rain showers in Northern Oklahoma at 2:45 p.m.  Also please see the 7-day forecast provided by the Oklahoma Mesonet.  The next harvest report will be scheduled for Wednesday, July 6, 2022.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest At 75% Complete

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest is moving ahead across the state in all locations with much of Southwest, South Central and Central Oklahoma closer to the finish line.  In Northern Oklahoma great strides have been made this past week with producers also getting good starts in Northeast Oklahoma as well as in the Panhandle.  Due to open weather over the past week– test weights, protein numbers and yield reports continue to be on par with the numbers that were reported last week.

Elevators are still reporting sprout damage across the state in the Southwest, South Central and Central regions due to excessive moisture that was received in these regions prior to harvest.  The sprout damage has also been variety specific in many instances.  (Note:  Percentages in comparison to non- sprouted wheat has not changed over the past two weeks.) In Southwest Oklahoma, some fields have as much at 10 to 30% damage, this would be in 10 percent of the crop from this region.  In South Central, fields reported to be having 10% to 18% sprout damage on 20% of the loads being taken in.  In Central Oklahoma sprout damage is estimated from 2% to 15%.  The majority of sprout damage in these regions is falling in the 0 to 2% category, with 5 to 7% of the crop having as much as 15% damage. In Northern Oklahoma not much sprout damage is being reported.   Proteins across the state are favorable with averages coming in between 12 to 13% in most places.  Yields are ranging all over the board from the low teens to mid-20’s in Southwest, Oklahoma.   In South Central Oklahoma, yields being reported from 10 bushels per acre to the mid 30’s.  Yields in central and Northern Oklahoma are being reported as higher ranging from 15 bushels per acre to as high as 65 bushels per acre.  In the Northern tier of the state where yields are better, regions are still looking at averages in the high 20’s to mid-30’s.  It is also important to note several areas in Northwest Oklahoma up by Cherokee and Burlington had severe drought and large portions of that region will not be harvested, which will also have major impact on statewide bushels that are taken in.  Test weights have been lowered from Southern Oklahoma to Central Oklahoma, but based on earlier cuttings with higher test weights most locations are still hoping for a 58 bushel per pound average.   Test weights being reported from Enid North up around Jefferson, Medford, Lamont, Renfrow, Perry, Tonkawa, Ponca City, and Blackwell ranging from 58-61 pounds.  Harvest has gotten a good start up around Afton and Miami this week, the majority of the crop in this region is Soft Red Winter (SRW) wheat although some Hard Red Winter (HRW) is also being harvested in this area.  Yields in Northeast Oklahoma coming in strong ranging from 30 to 60 bushels per acre on both the HRW and SRW wheat.  Dryland wheat harvest is progressing in the Panhandle with irrigated wheat also now being harvested. Yields on both the dryland and irrigated wheat coming in extremely low, with dryland ranging from 5 bushels per acre to mid 20’s. Irrigated wheat making in the low to mid 40’s. The Oklahoma Wheat Commission is now calling Oklahoma wheat harvest 75% completed.

See definitions of classes and what they are used for on the next page.

**Hard Red Winter Wheat-Versatile, with excellent milling and baking characteristics for pan bread, Hard Red Winter is also a choice wheat for Asian noodles, hard rolls, flat breads, general purpose flour and cereal.

**Soft Red Winter Wheat- A versatile weak-gluten wheat with excellent milling and baking characteristics, Soft Red Winter is suited for cookies, crackers, pretzels, pastries and flat breads.

Southwest

Grandfield/Devol/Chattanooga/Lawton- Grandfield is 98% complete, Devol is 99% complete, Chattanooga is 98% complete, Lawton is reported 96% completed. Test weights in this region ranging from 58-60 pounds per bushel. Yields ranging in the low teens to mid-20’s. Proteins ranging from the 11.5% to 12.5%. No sprout damage reported from these locations.

Frederick- Harvest in this region is 99% complete. Test weights ranging from 60 to 61 pounds/bushel.  Proteins ranging from 12 to 12.5% range. Yields being reported from low teens to high twenties, averaging in the low 20’s.

Altus/Duke/Carter- Harvest in this region reported as 99% done. Test weights now trending 56-59 pounds per bushel compared to earlier cuttings making 59 to 60 pounds per bushel.   Yields reported from 5 bushel an acre to mid-20’s. Proteins ranging from 13% to 16%.

Lone Wolf/Hobart- Harvest in these regions is reported at 95% complete.  Test weights being reported from 55 to 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields ranging from low teens to mid-20’s.  Proteins reported making from 13% to 16%. 

South Central

Apache- Wheat harvest is moving along in this region and is considered 85% complete.  Test weights have been ranging from 57 pounds to 58 pounds per bushel for the most part.  On the intensive management wheat they are seeing some 60 pound test weights.   Yields for the most part are ranging from 10 to 35 bushels per acre depending on location, management and variety.

Chickasha- Harvest in this region 75% complete.  Yields are doing much better than expected based on all the heavy rains, high winds and hail damage that occurred.   Test weights ranging from 58 to 59 pounds per bushel. Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-30’s.  Some minor sprout damage is being reported but not as bad as expected.  Some producers have had 20 to 40% hail damage losses.

Western Oklahoma

Sentinel/Rocky- Harvest has made great progress over the weekend and is reported at 99% complete.   Test weights reported in the 56 to 60 pound per bushel range. Yields being reported from 14 to 28 bushels per acre.  Proteins ranging from 13% to 17% depending on variety and management practices.

Hinton- This region is reported at 87% complete.  Yields are doing better than expected after all the storms that hit prior to last week.  Yields ranging in the mid 30’s, test weights averaging 60.5 pounds.  Proteins ranging from 10% to 17% with a 13.5% average.

Central Oklahoma

El Reno- They are reporting 88% harvested in this region. Yields are being reported from the low 20’s to the low 40’s depending on variety and management.  Test weights ranging from 57 to 59.5 pounds per bushel.  Protein ranging from 11% to 14.5%

Kingfisher/OmegaHarvest in this region reported to be 95% complete. Test weights with ranges reported from 57 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Yields averaging in the high 20’s to low 30’s. Proteins have ranged from 10% to 15%, seeing a lot in the 11.5% to 12.5% range.

Reeding- Harvest in this region reported 93% complete. Test weights with ranges from 57 to 59 pounds per bushel being reported. Yields averaging mid-teens to low 30’s depending on variety and management. Proteins ranging from 11% to 12%.

Loyal- Harvest in this region reported at 90% complete.  Test weights averaging 57 to 59 pounds per bushel.  Yields on early harvested wheat making in the low 20’s to low 40’s.  Protein ranging from 11.5% to 12.5% on early samples.

Northwest OK

Shattuck/Fort Supply-This region being reported at 50% complete. Test weights ranging from 57 to 62 pounds per bushel depending on variety and management.  Yields ranging from 5 bushels to 25 bushels per acre.  Proteins are ranging from 12% to 14%.

Burlington- Harvest in this region reported at 90% complete. A large area in this region will not be harvested due to the severe drought.  On the crop that will be harvested, test weight for this region is averaging 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-40’s on the wheat that will be harvested depending on where moisture was received in a timely manner and management practices.  Proteins ranging from 12% to 13%.

Helena/Goltry- Harvest in this region 85% completed.  Yields reported from the mid-teens to mid 30’s. Yields have been better as harvest has progressed as producers have gotten into better wheat. Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Proteins are averaging 13%.

Northern Oklahoma

Pond Creek/Lamont- This area reported to be 58% complete.  Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel. Yields being reported in the low 30’s to mid-40’s. Proteins ranging from 12% to 16%.

Medford/Deer Creek-Producers in this region are moving forward and harvest is reported 50% complete. Test weights on early cuttings ranging from 58 to 61 pounds per bushel.  Yields in this region have been reported to be making better because of timely rains.  The yields are ranging from low 30’s to mid-40’s.   Some reports on management intensive wheat to be making in the high 60’s. Proteins have been ranging from 11% to 16%.

Perry/Tonkawa/Ponca City/Blackwell Harvest reported at 50% complete. Test weights ranging from 58 to 61 pounds per bushel. Protein averages around 12 to 13%.  Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-40’s with some areas reporting higher yields on management intensive wheat.

Northeast Oklahoma

Afton/MiamiAfton is 50% complete, Miami is 25% complete. Test weights on both the Hard Red Winter (HRW) and Soft Red Winter (SRW) wheat is ranging from 60 pounds to 65 pounds per bushel.  Yields on both the HRW and SRW ranging from 30 bushels to 65 bushels per acre, depending on variety and management practices.  No proteins reported at this time, no sprout damage has been reported for wheat in this region.

Panhandle

HookerHarvest on the dryland wheat is progressing with 50 to 60% of the dryland wheat being harvested. Harvest on the irrigated wheat reported at 10% complete.  Yields on the dryland wheat making from 5 bushels per acre to in the mid 20’s depending on location.  Yields on the early irrigated wheat not favorable with reports on early cuttings making in the low to mid 40’s.   Test weights on the dryland wheat weighing 63 pounds to 64 pounds per bushel, nothing weighing less than 60 pounds per bushel on the irrigated wheat.  Protein for this region being reported at 12.5%.

Below see the Heat Maximum and Air Temperatures at 11:35 a.m. on Monday June 20th along with the maximum air temperature above 100 since January 1, 2022.  Also please see the  7-day forecast provided by the Oklahoma Mesonet.  The next harvest report will be scheduled for Wednesday, June 22, 2022.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Continues to Move Ahead Making Great Strides the Past Couple Days

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest is moving forward in all locations across the state with producers making great strides statewide. Things are finally moving better in South Central, Oklahoma, North of El Reno and down by Chickasha as fields are drying up. Elevators are still reporting sprout damage across the state in the Southwest, South Central and Central regions due to excessive moisture in places. The sprout damage has also been variety specific in many instances (Note: Percentages in comparison to non- sprouted wheat has not changed since Monday’s report). In Southwest Oklahoma, some fields have as much at 10 to 30% damage, this would be in 10 percent of the crop from this region. In South Central, fields reported to be having 10% to 18% sprout damage on 20% of the loads being taken in. In Central Oklahoma sprout damage is estimated from 2% to 15%. The majority of sprout damage in these regions is falling in the 0 to 2% category, with 5 to 7% of the crop having as much as 15% damage. In Northern Oklahoma not much sprout damage is being reported. Proteins across the state are favorable with averages coming in between 12 to 13% in most places. Yields are ranging all over the board low teens to mid-20’s in Southwest, Oklahoma.   In South Central Oklahoma, yields being reported from 10 bushels per acre to the mid 30’s. (Yields on areas where harvest is just picking up after the heavy rains last week are doing much better than expected even though sprout damage on some varieties is being reported in this region.) Yields in South Central, from Hinton to El Reno and then South to Chickasha are ranging in the mid 20’s to mid-30’s, which is remarkable given what the crop went thru. It should be noted some areas did have heavy hail damage and we are hearing reports of 20 to 40% losses where hail did occur. Yields in central and Northern Oklahoma are being reported as higher ranging from 15 bushels per acre to as high as 65 bushels per acre.  In the Northern tier of the state where yields are better, regions are still looking at averages in the high 20’s to mid-30’s. It is also important to note several areas in Northwest Oklahoma up by Cherokee and Burlington had severe drought and large portions of that region will not be harvested, which will also have major impact on statewide bushels that are taken in. Test weights have been lowered from Southern Oklahoma to Central Oklahoma, but based on earlier cuttings with higher test weights most locations are still hoping for a 58 bushel per pound average. Test weights being reported from Enid North up around Jefferson, Medford, Lamont, Renfrow, Perry, Tonkawa, Ponca City, and Blackwell ranging from 58-61 pounds. Harvest is just getting started in NE Oklahoma around the Afton and Miami and not enough wheat was taken in to make a report. Harvest is also moving now on the dryland wheat in the Panhandle. The Oklahoma Wheat Commission is now calling Oklahoma wheat harvest 55% completed.

Southwest

Grandfield/Devol/Chattanooga/Lawton- Grandfield is 95% complete, Devol is 99% complete, Chattanooga is 85% complete, Lawton is reported 95% completed. Test weights in this region ranging from 58-60 pounds per bushel. Yields ranging in the low teens to mid-20’s. Proteins ranging from the 11.5% to 12.5%. No sprout damage reported from these locations.

Frederick- Harvest in this region is 99% complete. Test weights ranging from 60 to 61 pounds/bushel.  Proteins ranging from 12 to 12.5% range. Yields being reported from low teens to high twenties, averaging in the low 20’s.

Altus/Duke/Carter- Harvest in this region reported as 95% done. Test weights have dropped some over the past week with the heavy rains and are now trending 56-58 pounds per bushel compared to earlier cuttings making 59 to 60 pounds per bushel. Yields reported from 5 bushel an acre to mid-20’s. Proteins ranging from 13% to 16%.

Lone Wolf/Hobart- Harvest in these regions is reported at 75% complete.  Test weights have dropped slightly and now being reported from 55 to 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields ranging from low teens to mid-20’s.  Proteins reported making from 13% to 16%. 

South Central

Apache- Wheat harvest is moving along in this region and is considered 45% complete. Test weights have been ranging from 57 pounds to 58 pounds per bushel for the most part.  On the intensive management wheat they are seeing some 60 pound test weights. Yields for the most part are ranging from 10 to 35 bushels per acre depending on location, management and variety.

Chickasha- Harvest in this region has really moved forward over the past couple of days once producers have been able to get into fields. Harvest in this region 45% to 50% complete.  Yields are doing much better than expected based on all the heavy rains, high winds and hail damage that occurred. Test weights ranging from 58 to 59 pounds per bushel. Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-30’s.  Some minor sprout damage is being reported but not as bad as expected.  Some producers have had 20 to 40% hail damage losses.

Western Oklahoma

Sentinel/Rocky- Harvest has made great progress over the weekend and is reported at 95% complete.   Test weights reported in the 56 to 60 pound per bushel range. Yields being reported from 14 to 28 bushels per acre.  Proteins ranging from 13% to 17% depending on variety and management practices.

Hinton- Harvest in this area has progressed extremely fast over the last few days.  This region is reported at 75% complete.  Yields are doing better than expected after all the storms that hit prior to last week.  Yields ranging in the mid 30’s, test weights averaging 60.5 pounds.  Proteins ranging from 10% to 17% with a 13.5% average.

Central Oklahoma

El Reno- Harvest has been rolling North of El Reno, and is finally getting started South of El Reno although producers are still fighting mud from last week. They are reporting 40% harvested in this region. Yields are being reported from the low 20’s to the low 40’s depending on variety and management.  Test weights ranging from 57 to 59.5 pounds per bushel.  Protein ranging from 11% to 14.5%

Kingfisher/OmegaHarvest in this region reported to be 80% complete. Test weights have dropped with ranges reported from 57 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Yields averaging in the high 20’s to low 30’s. Proteins have ranged from 10% to 15%, seeing a lot in the 11.5% to 12.5% range.

Reeding- Harvest in this region reported 40% complete. Test weights have dropped with ranges from 57 to 59 pounds per bushel being reported. Yields averaging mid-teens to low 30’s depending on variety and management. Proteins ranging from 11% to 12%.

Loyal- Harvest in this regions reported at 40% complete.  Test weights averaging 57 to 59 pounds per bushel.  Yields on early harvested wheat making in the low 20’s to low 40’s. Protein ranging from 11.5% to 12.5% on early samples.

Northwest OK

Shattuck/Fort Supply-This region being reported at 30% complete. Test weights ranging from 57 to 62 pounds per bushel depending on variety and management.  Yields ranging from 5 bushels to 25 bushels per acre.  Proteins are ranging from 12% to 14%.

Burlington- Harvest in this region reported at 40% complete. A large area in this region much of the crop will not be harvested due to the severe drought.  On the crop that will be harvested test weight for this region averaging 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-40’s on the wheat that will be harvested depending on where moisture was received in a timely manner and management practices.  Proteins ranging from 12% to 13%.

Helena/Goltry- Harvest in this region has been moving full speed ahead, this region being reported as 60% harvested.  Yields reported from the mid-teens to low 30’s for the most part.  Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Proteins are averaging 13%.

Northern Oklahoma

Pond Creek/Lamont- This area reported to be 30% complete.  Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel. Yields being reported in the low 30’s to mid-40’s. Proteins ranging from 12% to 16%.

Medford/Deer Creek- Producers in this region are moving forward and harvest is reported 20% complete. Test weights on early cuttings ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Yields in this region have been reported to be making better because of timely rains.  The yields are ranging from low 30’s to mid-40’s.   Some reports on management intensive wheat to be making in the high 60’s. Proteins have been ranging from 11% to 16%.

Perry/Tonkawa/Ponca City/BlackwellProducers in this region just getting started over the past few days.  Harvest reported at 20% complete. Test weights ranging from 58 to 61 pounds per bushel. Protein averages around 12 to 13%.  Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-40’s with some areas reporting higher yields on management intensive wheat.

Northeast Oklahoma

Early reports of a couple loads being taken in at Miami, and this was on Hard Red Winter (HRW) wheat.  A more detailed report with actual results will be published on Monday of next week once harvest gets rolling, we will also be reporting on the Soft Red Winter (SRW) wheat in this region.  No SRW has been taken in at this time.

Panhandle

Hooker- Harvest on dryland wheat has just started over the past couple of days. Test weights ranging from 58 to 63 pounds per bushel.  On the dryland wheat that is being harvested reports showing it is averaging around 20 bushels per acre on early cuttings. Proteins averaging 12%.

Below see the Heat Maximum and Air Temperatures for Wednesday June 15th. Also please see the 7-day forecast provided by the Oklahoma Mesonet.  The next harvest report will be scheduled for Monday, June 20, 2022.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest In Full Swing from Border to Border

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest is moving forward in all locations across the state with producers making great strides in the hot dry temperatures.  A large majority of the crop in the region from Clinton, Weatherford, Carnegie, south to Pocasset and Chickasha received major hail damage and heavy rains last week and still fighting mud which will impact overall statewide numbers along with severe drought during the growing season in areas West of I-35.   Elevators are reporting more sprout damage across the state in the Southwest, South Central and Central regions due to excessive moisture in places. 

Yields are ranging all over the board. Low teens to mid-20’s in Southwest, Oklahoma. In South Central Oklahoma, yields are being reported from 10 bushels per acre to the mid 30’s.  Yields in central and Northern Oklahoma are ranging higher from 15 bushels to as high as 65 bushels per acre. Most regions are still looking at averages in the high 20’s to mid-30’s for the most part.  It is also important to note several areas in Northwest Oklahoma by Cherokee and Burlington experienced severe drought and large portions of that region will not be harvested.

Test weights have been lowered in Southern Oklahoma to Central Oklahoma, but based on earlier cuttings with higher test weights, most locations are still hoping for a 58 bushel per pound average. Test weights are being reported higher in NW Oklahoma in the Enid area and fields further north and east towards Jefferson, Medford, Lamont and Renfrow with many weights coming in at 60 pounds per bushel or higher. 

Proteins have ranged across the state between 10% and as high as 17% with averages coming in between 12 to 13% in most places. 

Sprout Damage – Elevators are reporting more sprout damage across the state in the Southwest, South Central and Central regions due to excessive moisture in places.  The sprout damage has also been wheat variety specific in many instances.  In Southwest Oklahoma, there may be as much as 10 to 30% sprout damage in 10% of the crop. In South Central, some fields are reported to having 10% to 18% sprout damage on 20% of the loads being taken in.  In Central Oklahoma, sprout damage is anywhere from 2% to 15% with most of the damage in this region falling in the 0 to 2% category, with 5 to 7% of the crop having as much as 15% damage.  

The Oklahoma Wheat Commission is now calling Oklahoma wheat harvest 45% completed.

Southwest

Frederick- Harvest in this region is 95-97% complete. Test weights ranging from 60 to 61 pounds/bushel.  Proteins ranging from 12 to 12.5%. Yields being reported from low teens to high twenties, averaging in the low 20’s.

Altus/ Duke/ Carter- Harvest in this region reported as 90% done. Test weights have dropped some over the past week with the heavy rains and are now trending 56-58 pounds per bushel compared to earlier cuttings making 59 to 60 pounds per bushel.   Yields reported from 5 bushel an acre to mid-20’s. Proteins ranging from 13% to 16%

Lone Wolf/Hobart- Harvest in these regions is reported at 60% complete.  Test weights have dropped slightly and now being reported from 55 to 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields ranging from low teens to mid-20’s.  Proteins reported making from 13% to 16%.

South Central

Apache- Wheat harvest is just getting a good start in this region as producers have been fighting mud from the heavy rains that they received last week.  Test weights have been ranging from 57 pounds to 58 pounds per bushel for the most part.  On the intensive management wheat, they are seeing some 60-pound test weights.   Yields for the most part are ranging from 10 to 35 bushels per acre depending on location, management and variety.  This region 25% harvested.

Western Oklahoma

Sentinel/Rocky- Harvest has made great progress over the weekend and is reported at 80% complete.   Test weights reported in the 56 to 60 pound per bushel range. Yields being reported from 14 to 28 bushels per acre.  Proteins ranging from 13% to 17% depending on variety and management practices.

Central Oklahoma

El Reno- Harvest has been rolling North of El Reno, but South of El Reno, it is still be reported at a standstill as producers are fighting with mud from the heavy rains last week. They are reporting 20% harvested in this region. Yields are being reported from the low 20’s to the low 40’s depending on variety and management.  Test weights ranging from 57 to 59.5 pounds per bushel.  Protein ranging from 11% to 14.5%.

Kingfisher/OmegaHarvest in this region reported to be 60% complete. Test weights have dropped with ranges reported from 57 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Yields averaging in the high 20’s to low 30’s. Proteins have ranged from 10% to 15%, seeing a lot in the 11.5% to 12.5% range.

Reeding- Harvest in this region reported 25% complete. Test weights have dropped with ranges from 57 to 59 pounds per bushel being reported. Yields averaging mid-teens to low 30’s depending on variety and management. Proteins ranging from 11% to 12%.

Loyal- Harvest in this region reported at 20% complete.  Test weights averaging 57 to 59 pounds per bushel.  Yields on early harvested wheat making in the low 20’s to low 40’s.  Protein is ranging from 11.5% to 12.5% on early samples.

Northwest OK

Shattuck/Fort Supply-This region being reported at 15% complete. Test weights ranging from 57 to 62 pounds per bushel depending on variety and management.  Yields ranging from 5 bushels to 25 bushels per acre.  Proteins are ranging from 12% to 14%.

Burlington- Harvest in this region reported at 20% complete. A large area in this region will not be harvested due to the severe drought.  On the crop that will be harvested, test weights for this region is averaging 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-40’s on the wheat that will be harvested depending on where moisture was received in a timely manner and management practices.  Proteins ranging from 12% to 13%.

Helena/Goltry- Harvest in this region has been moving full speed ahead, this region being reported as 50% harvested.  Yields reported from the mid-teens to low 30’s for the most part.  Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Proteins are averaging 13%.

Northern Oklahoma

Pond Creek/Lamont- Producers got a good start over the weekend in this region. This area reported to be 10% complete.  Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel. Yields being reported in the low 30’s to mid-40’s. Proteins ranging from 12% to 16%.

Medford/Deer Creek- Producers in this region are just getting started, as more moisture was received in this area last week.  Test weights on early cuttings ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Yields in this region have been reported to be making better because of timely rains.  The yields are ranging from low 30’s to mid-40’s.   Some reports on management intensive wheat to be making in the high 60’s. Proteins have been ranging from 11% to 16%.

Panhandle- At the time of this report, no harvest was reported as taking place in the Panhandle although we have heard early reports of harvest starting around Baker, Oklahoma.  We plan to have a more in-depth report in this region on Wednesday, June 15th.

Below see the Heat Maximum and Air Temperatures for Monday June 13th. Also please see the 7-day forecast provided by the Oklahoma Mesonet.  The next harvest report will be scheduled for Wednesday, June 15, 2022.

Pre-harvest sprouting damage in wheat

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

Pre-harvest sprouting is the onset of grain germination while still on the wheat head. Once wheat reaches physiological maturity, it can initiate germination if exposed to ideal moisture and warm temperatures for a few days. This is the case in some areas of Oklahoma that have received rainfall for several days after wheat has ripened. Genetics and environmental conditions are responsible for the differences in susceptibility to sprouting. Thus, wheat varieties differ in their resistance to sprouting (i.e., some are more prone to sprouting than others).

The occurrence of pre-harvest sprouting damage in the state has been low to moderate so far. But, due to the number of questions/calls I have received with the same concern in the past days, I thought I would share a few thoughts.

Can I use sprout-damaged wheat for seed?

It depends on several factors, but more importantly, is the level of sprout damage that has occurred. Grains that are swollen and with split seed coat, without visible root or shoot emerging from the seed, might still be viable to be used as seed. In this case, a germination test is warranted after harvest and before planting. Suppose the grain shows broken seed coat with visible roots and/or coleoptile. In that case, it should not be kept for seed because they will likely have reduced viability or not be viable at all (Picture 1).

Picture 1. Pre-harvest sprouted wheat damage, showing grain with split seed coat and radicle starting to become visible. The photo was taken on June 10, 2022, by Glen Calvert, the Extension Ag Educator at Washita County.

Will pre-harvest sprouting damage affect quality?

The extent to which pre-harvest sprouting grain will affect quality depends on the level of damage. Grain germination causes the production of alpha amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starch. As the level of sprout damage increases, this enzyme also increases, leading to an impairment of grain quality. Sprouted damaged grain can negatively impact wheat flour and baking quality by affecting mixability, crumb strength, loaf volume, etc.

Resources:

Contact your local county Extension office.

Storage and Use of Low Test Weight and Sprouted Wheat –  Factsheet BAE-1109

Acknowledgments:

Gary Strickland, Jackson County Extension Director and SWREC Regional Agronomy Specialist

Glen Calvert , Extension Educator Ag/4H at Washita County

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Progresses Slowly with Continued Rains

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest continues to move forward at a slow pace due to untimely rains across the wheat belt. Different moisture amounts have been recorded at different times throughout the past week. Rains hindered progress in parts of Central, North Central and Northwest Oklahoma yesterday and early this morning. In some areas between Clinton and Hydro, 4 to 5 inches of moisture was reported by producers depending on locations. (In some instances, these large amounts came within one hour during the morning hours of June 7.)  The past couple of days and this weekend, harvest has been making progress in Southwest Oklahoma around Grandfield, Frederick, Lone Wolf, Hobart and Altus. Harvest also has made progress in parts of Central Oklahoma around the Cashion, Okarche, Kingfisher, Omega and Watonga areas. Test weights have dropped some in these Southern and Central regions with more 58 and 59’s being reported; however, 60 pound test weights are still being received in all locations that are taking wheat. In Northern Oklahoma on early samples, it is thought test weights will still be favorable because the wheat was not fully ripe. Yields have gotten better as harvest has moved North, in the Cashion, Okarche, Kingfisher and Omega region. We have had reports from 15 bushels to as high as 64 bushels per acre. (The average for this region is being reported in the high 20’s to low 30’s.)  It is important to note in several areas of South Central Oklahoma with locations at Apache, Chickasha, Minco, Hinton and Hydro, producers have really not had an opportunity to get a good start, so nothing has been reported from these locations as far as yield and test weights. Proteins across Oklahoma are ranging from 10 to 17 percent, but overall the majority of the crop is in the 12% to 14% range, with much higher proteins in the Western corridors of the state reporting in the 13% to 15% range. It should be noted we are seeing reports for sprout damage now occurring in locations across the state, but the sprout reports have been minimal with reports of 2% to 5% on some loads depending on variety and location.   The Oklahoma Wheat Commission is now calling Oklahoma wheat harvest 20% completed.

Grandfield/Frederick- Harvest in this region is 95-97% complete. Test weights ranging from 60 to 61 pounds/bushel. Proteins ranging from 12 to 12.5% range. Yields being reported from low teens to high twenties, averaging in the low 20’s.

Lone Wolf/Hobart/ Altus- Harvest in these regions is reported at 50 to 60% complete depending on location. Test weights have dropped slightly and now being reported from 59 to 60 pounds per bushel. Yields ranging from 7 bushels per acre to the mid 20’s depending on location, with proteins reported making from 12% to 17%. Most were ranging mainly from 13% to 15%. 

Apache- Wheat harvest still has not really started in this region.  Four truck loads were taken in yesterday with test weights ranging from 58 to 61 pounds per bushel.  No yields or proteins have been reported as they are waiting for a more representative sample.  1/10th of an inch of rain was received this morning, so producers are hopeful they will get rolling more this afternoon.

Sentinel/Rocky- Harvest has made slow progress in this region from last week due to light rains throughout the week but is considered 30% complete. Test weights reported in the 58 to 61 pound per bushel range. Yields being reported from 14 to 25 bushels per acre. Proteins ranging from 13% to 17% depending on variety and management practices.

Cashion/Okarche/Kingfisher/OmegaHarvest in this region reported to be 10 to 20% completed, depending on location. Test weights have dropped with more falling in the 59 to 60 pound/bushel range than what had previously been reported before the rains in that 61 to 63 pound/bushel range. Yields averaging in the high 20’s to low 30’s. Proteins have ranged from 10% to 15%, seeing a lot in the 11.5% to 12.5% range.

Clinton/Weatherford/Hydro/Minco/Chickasha- Rains this past week and heavy rains early this morning have hindered harvest from taking place in most of these regions. Harvest in these areas are at a complete standstill.

Greenfield- Harvest is just getting started in this region. Test weights on early samples averaging out in the 59 to 60 pounds per bushel. Yields on early harvest wheat making in the low to mid 20’s with hopes better wheat will be harvested in the region once harvest gets rolling.  Protein ranging from 11.3% to 14% on early samples.

Shattuck-Wheat harvest has not really started in this region due to light rains received throughout the week. Yesterday afternoon one load was received North of Fort Supply, but quality and yield was not reported as it would not be a representative sample.

Enid- A few loads have been hauled in at a couple locations. Test weights were ranging from 60 to 61 pounds per bushel on early samples. No yields have been reported.  Proteins on early cuttings averaging 12.5%.  This is based on less than 5 loads being received.

Burlington- A couple of samples were received Sunday and Monday.  Moisture was mid 14’s on Sunday and Monday was 15 percent. Light drizzle was received this morning. It was thought some might try harvesting this afternoon if the sun comes out. No yields, test weights or protein reported as no loads have been taken in.

Below see actual rainfall accumulations for the past 12 hours. (Please keep in mind some of the numbers reported in actual report are higher than what Mesonet is showing based on conversations with agricultural producers in the region).   Also please see the forecast for tomorrow along with the 7-day forecast provided by the Oklahoma Mesonet.  The next harvest report will be scheduled for Monday, June 13, 2022.

Wheat Disease Update – 2 June 2022

This article was written by Meriem Aoun, Small Grains Pathologist

Crown and root rot (Figure 1) was among the common diseases throughout the last two weeks of May. We observed this disease in multiple counties in Oklahoma including Cimmaron, Payne, Major, Texas, Beaver, Canadian, Kingfisher, and Alfalfa. Culturing from infected samples at the Plant Disease Diagnostic Lab at OSU showed that most samples were infected by Fusarium pseudograminearum. Fewer samples from Kingfisher, Alfalfa, Beaver, and Payne counties were infected by Bipolaris sorokiniana which causes common root rot. In these samples, Bipolaris Sorokiniana was often detected in combination with Fusarium pseudograminearum. Bipolaris Sorokiniana also caused spot blotch on the leaves in samples from Payne and Garfield counties.

Figure 1. Symptoms of crown/root rot on the winter wheat variety ‘LCS Atomic AX’ in a farmer field in Kingfisher, OK (Photo credit: Mike Johnson, Albaugh LLC).

In Morris (Okmulgee County, East Central OK) and on May 31, I observed high incidence of Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab) as shown in Figure 2. Bleached heads with salmon-pink color spore masses were observed (Figure 3). Precipitations during May (around flowering time of the crop) favored the development of this disease. In addition, corn, which is another susceptible crop, was grown last year in this field contributing to the increase of the fungus inoculum in the soil. The FHB fungus produces a mycotoxin called deoxynivalenol (DON) which contaminates grain, increasing the likelihood for discounts or rejection of entire grain loads at the point of sale. This high FHB incidence in Morris agrees with the forecast from the wheat scab risk tool (www.wheatscab.psu.edu/), which showed that Eastern Oklahoma had medium-to-high scab risk (Figure 4).

Figure 2. Symptoms of Fusarium head blight (scab) in a winter wheat field in Morris (Okmulgee County, Oklahoma).
Figure 3. Wheat head showing Fusarium head blight symptoms. Salmon-pink color on the spikelet corresponds to Fusarium spore masses (photo credit: Brian Olson, OSU Wheat Pathology Lab).
Figure 4. Scab risk map for the US based on six-day weather forecast (wheatscab.psu.edu, checked on June 2, 2022). Warmer red color corresponds to higher disease risk. Eastern Oklahoma had medium-to-high scab risk.

On June 1st, the OSU Disease Diagnostic Lab received a sample from Kay County showing dark chocolate chaff and tenacious glumes on the winter wheat variety ‘Green Hammer’ (Figure 5). I also observed these symptoms in other locations in Oklahoma including Balko (Beaver County), Lahoma (Garfield County), and Morris (Okmulgee County). These symptoms are triggered by environmental stresses such as drought and can be observed on the winter wheat varieties ‘Green Hammer’, ‘Bentley’, ‘Baker’s Ann’, and ‘Joe’.

Figure 5. Dark chocolate chaff and tenacious glumes on winter wheat in Lahoma, Garfield County, Oklahoma.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Moves Forward with Abrupt Halt After Untimely Rains

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest made great strides in South Central and Southwest, Oklahoma over the Memorial Day weekend with producers getting started in regions as far north as Omega and Hennessey with some minor cutting being reported by Seiling.  Moisture has been challenging for producers in Central Oklahoma and variety selections made a difference on whether producers were able to get into the fields or not this past week in central Oklahoma. Rains have now delayed harvest from moving forward in all regions of Oklahoma that began on Tuesday evening.  Reports from across the state have been fairly consistent on yields being reported mainly in the mid teens to mid 20’s, across most Southern and Western regions.  The occasional yield of 30 to 40 bushels have been reported on non-grazed management intensive ground.  We have had one or two reports of some fields making 51 to 52 bushels per acre.  It is thought yields will be better as harvest moves further North and reports have trended higher on yields in Central, Oklahoma around the El Reno, Okarche, Kingfisher, Omega areas. Yields in these regions are mainly being reported in the mid 20’s to mid 30’s depending on the variety and management practices. Producers have made great strides down around Grandfield, Tipton, Altus, Fredrick, Walters with approximately half of the crop being reported as harvested.  Harvest is just beginning in the Chickasha and Apache regions with producers getting good starts.  Heavy rains in several areas of Southwest Oklahoma from Hollis, Tipton, Altus to Frederick last night will most likely have an impact on quality from here on out.  South of Altus it was reported that they received 3 inches at the OSU research station and East of Altus some areas received 6 inches of moisture in less than an hour.  Flash flooding happened in several places from Hollis, Tipton and Altus to Frederick. It was reported that a rail line was washed out in Headrick early this morning.  Several places have been without power in this region as of this morning, due to high winds that knocked down power lines.  While yields have been below average the quality of the crop up to this point has been extremely favorable.  All the data on quality was taken before the late Tuesday evening /early Wednesday morning rains, so producers are concerned what things will look like once they get back into the fields.  

Grandfield- Harvest is reported as 50% complete in this region.  Test weights before the rain have been 60 pounds per bushel or higher. Yields making from the mid teens to mid 20’s depending on variety and management. Protein reported from 11.5% to 12%, with some higher proteins reported between 14% and 17%

Devol- Harvest in this region reported at 45% complete. Test weights before the rain making 59 pounds per bushel or higher. (Average is still probably 60+ for this region before the rain.)  Yields being reported in the mid teens to low 20’s.  Some yields reported as low as 6 bushels per acre.  Protein ranging from 11.5% to 12%.

Chattanooga  Harvest in this region reported at 45% complete.  Test weights reported at 60 pounds per bushel or higher with yields in the mid teens to low 20’s for the most part.  Proteins ranging from 11.5% to 12%.

Frederick- Harvest in this region is 50% complete. Test weights ranging from 59 to 62 pounds/bushel.  Proteins ranging from 10 to 13.5% range. Yields being reported from low teens to one coming in at 38 bushels per acre.

Granite/Lone Wolf/Altus/Duke- Harvest in these regions is reported at 40% to 50% complete depending on location.  Test weights in this region before the rains ranging from 59 to 61 pounds per bushel.  (More falling in the 60+ range).  Yields being reported from 7 bushels per acre to the mid 20’s depending on location. We did have a few yields making in the high twenties to mid 30’s but those reports were minimal.  Proteins ranging from 12% to 17%.  Proteins in the 14 to 15% range not uncommon in these Western corridors.

Apache- Wheat harvest was just getting started in this region at the time of this report on Tuesday afternoon.  Only a couple loads of wheat had been taken in.  No yields, protein and test weights were reported as it would not be a good representation of the area at this point in time.

Sentinel/Rocky- Test weights reported in the 59 to 61 pound per bushel range.  (Samples before the rains were more in the 60+ range.)  Producers did get rolling good in this region over the Memorial Day weekend, the crop has been reported as clean with not much dockage.  Yields being reported from 14 to 25 bushels per acre.  Proteins ranging from 11.5% to 15% depending on variety and management practices.

OkarcheOver the weekend and up until yesterday, producers were just getting a good start in this region.  Grain was being taken in South, West, East and North of Okarche.  Test weights have been reported as decent with most being 60 pounds per bushel or higher.  Yields have been reported from as low at 10 bushels per acre to some making in the mid 40’s depending on management and variety.  It is thought in  the region, most will be looking at averages in the mid 20 to high 20 range.  Proteins being reported from 11.5% to 12%.

Kingfisher/Omega-Test weights on the wheat from this area reported at 60 pounds per bushel or higher.  Yields ranging from the mid 20’s to the mid 30’s.  A couple reports of fields with intensive management making in the mid 40’s to as high as 50. Protein ranged from 11.5% to 12.5%

Hennessey- Wheat harvest was just getting started in this region at the time of this report on Tuesday afternoon.  No yields, protein and test weights were reported as it would not be a good representation of the area at the time of the report.

Seiling-Wheat harvest was just getting started in this region at the time of this report on Tuesday afternoon.  No yields, protein and test weights were reported as it would not be a good representation of the area at the time of the report.

Below see actual rainfall accumulations for the past 24 hours. (Please keep in mind some of the numbers reported in actual report are higher than what Mesonet is showing based on conversations with agricultural producers in the region).  Also please see the forecast for tomorrow along with the 7-day forecast provided by the Oklahoma Mesonet.  The next harvest report will be scheduled for Monday, June 6, 2022, please keep in mind predicted weather is showing rains across the state over the weekend so the report might not have much change if producers do not get back into the fields before that time.  

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest at Standstill after Early Start

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma wheat harvest is at a standstill after an early season start in Southwest, Oklahoma.   Not much has changed since the last report since no wheat has been taken in. Rains have moved across the state in all regions the past two days.  Even though producers would like to get into fields in all regions, the rain has been welcomed because of the extreme drought conditions across Southwest, Western, Panhandle and Central Oklahoma regions.  Yields are ranging in the mid-teens to mid 20’s. We did have a report of one field making 41 bushels per acre by Chattanooga and we had one report of a field coming in at 38 bushels per acre by Frederick.  It has been noted in some places of South Central, Oklahoma producers are hopeful to have better yields on wheat that had more intensive management plans, however yields will still be extremely poor in most locations.   Proteins have been favorable ranging mostly from 11 to 13%, with a report of one load making 18.36%.  Test weights are ranging all over the board from 58 to 61 pounds/bushel. (It should be noted test weights at this point in time are holding up much better than anticipated with more 60 to 61 pound/bushel test weight wheat). Producers will still have to wait and see how the rains across the state this week will impact those numbers.  Several places in Southwest and far Western Panhandle regions received over an inch of moisture.  In parts of the Panhandle, it has been the first measurable rain over the past 180 days, and in these regions the dryland wheat will most likely not be harvested.

Grandfield-Harvest really started moving over the weekend around this location. 43 truckloads were taken in. Yields being reported in the 20-25 bushel per acre range.  Test weights ranged from 60-61 pounds/bushel.  Protein was ranging from 11 to 13%, with a large amount being reported in the 12 to 12.5% range.  Moisture ranged from 10 to 15%.

Tipton-Harvest in this region also began, yields have been ranging from the mid 15’s to mid 20’s.  Test weights ranging from 59 to 61 pounds/bushel.  Proteins ranging from 11 to 12.5% range. Moisture ranged from 11.5 to 14%.  It is predicted these beginning fields are the poorer quality wheat and producers are hopeful yields might improve slightly as they get into better wheat.

Walters- Harvest started moving good in this region over the weekend. Yields being reported in the mid 20’s, with some reports on some of the wheat with intensive management making 41 bushels per acre.  Test weights ranged from 58 to 62 pounds/bushel. Proteins ranging 11 to 14%.  One protein was reported at 18.36%

Frederick-Test weights ranging from 59 to 62 pounds/bushel.  Proteins ranging from 10 to 13.5% range. Yields being reported from low teens to one coming in at 38 bushels per acre.

Granite/Lone Wolf/Altus- Harvest just started in these regions over the weekend with a little of wheat being taken in these regions.  Test weights ranging from 57 to 58 pounds/bushel on the four loads being reported.  Proteins ranged from 11.2 to 13.1%  Yields reported in mid teens, with one being reported in the low 20’s, this is on early cutting, a more representative sample will come in the next report once harvest gets rolling more.

Below see actual rainfall accumulations for the past two days with comparisons to the 180 day rainfall accumulations across Oklahoma.  Also please see the 7 day forecast provided by the Oklahoma Mesonet. Due to the heavy moisture and cooler temperatures most think it will be the end of Memorial Day weekend or possibly the beginning of next week before producers start getting back into the fields in most locations. For this reason the OWC will not publish a harvest report on Memorial Day but will publish a fully detailed report on Wednesday, June 1, 2022.