About Me

David Marburger

David Marburger

Since April 2016, I have served as the Small Grains Extension Specialist at Oklahoma State University. My research and extension efforts focus on delivering science-based recommendations in order to increase small grains production and profitability for stakeholders throughout Oklahoma and the southern Great Plains.

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2017-2018 Oklahoma Wheat Crop Overview

At the time of writing this report, 2018 Oklahoma wheat production is estimated to be 52.0 million bushels, which is 47% less than the 2017 production (Table 1) and 62% less than the 2016 production. The lower total grain production is the result of less wheat acres harvested across the state, primarily from abandonment due to drought or baled for hay, and the below-average yield. The 4.3 million planted acres was only down 4% compared to the previous year, but that was still 18% lower than the previous ten-year average. Number of harvested acres is estimated at 2.0 million, which is 31% less than in 2017 (Table 1), and the lowest number in the state since 1913. The statewide average yield is projected at 26 bu/ac. This is 8 bu/ac (24%) less than the 2017 state average and 3.6 bu/ac (12%) less than the previous ten-year average.

table 1

The 2017-2018 wheat growing season was a fight from start to finish for many producers across the state. The growing season got an early start due to an unusual August for Oklahoma. Temperatures were below normal, and rainfall totals were above normal for the month. This prompted producers interested in targeting fall forage to begin planting at the end of August. Planting continued to move rapidly through the Labor Day weekend, and most of the wheat during this time was sown into adequate soil moisture and emerged rapidly. Those producers who waited until after Labor Day to plant saw more unfavorable conditions as temperatures rose, and available soil moisture quickly dried up. Wheat planted during this time was “dusted-in” and finally received precipitation toward the end of the month into the beginning of October to get the seed to germinate. Wheat planting intended for grain-only was stalled during the average timeframe of early to mid-October due to these precipitation events. Once the ground dried enough, most producers were able to quickly make up time and get the crop planted, but some needed until November to finish.

 

After mid-October, the rain quit falling for the remainder of the calendar year. Crop conditions during the early part of the season were average but quickly deteriorated as the season progressed. This also led to a disappointing fall forage production and grazing season for most producers. Those who planted during late August to early September and were able to protect the crop from fall armyworm achieved good stands and had some available pasture later in the fall. However, those who waited until after Labor Day or later to plant were not as fortunate. The later planting and lack of precipitation resulted in low total fall forage production or no available pasture at all.

 

Drought conditions and average to below average temperatures persisted throughout January into February. Even for the producers who had available fall pasture, the drought conditions limited the overall number of days of grazing.

 

Some precipitation finally fell in parts of the state during late February into early March. For many fields, this was the first precipitation received since planting. Below average temperatures were observed coming out of winter, and plants broke winter dormancy later than normal. Below average temperatures persisted, resulting in slow overall growth and development during this time. The first hollow stem growth stage was reached for many varieties during the second to third week of March, which was 7 to 10 days later than normal. Unfortunately, the rain received during late February to early March was not quite enough to give any grazed wheat the boost it needed to recover well.

 

Overall growth and development continued at a slower than normal pace due to the second coldest April on record. Three separate and widespread freeze events also occurred during the first week of April, resulting in significant injury in some areas. Most wheat headed during mid- to late April because of the cooler temperatures, with this being 7 to 14 days behind normal. The prevailing thought was that this would translate into a later than normal harvest. However, the cold temperatures in April were followed by the warmest May on record. The warm temperatures and lack of rainfall advanced the crop quickly at this point, resulting in suboptimal conditions for the grain-fill period.

 

Most wheat was mature in southwestern Oklahoma by the end of May and by the beginning of June in the central to northern parts of the state. Producers for the most part were not delayed by rainfall events, and with the dry weather during June, much of the wheat was harvested timely and quickly.

 

Overall, harvest was almost complete in the state by late June. Yields throughout Oklahoma were variable depending on location but were below average overall. Part of this variability was due to overgrazing and whether an area caught or missed a rainfall event during early spring. Field averages of 15 to 30 bu/ac were the norm across much of the state, but higher averages, even into the 50 to 60 bu/ac range, were not uncommon in some areas that received timely rainfall. Test weights throughout harvest remained at or above 60 lb/bu for early-harvested fields and did not drop much below the upper 50’s towards the end of harvest. Protein content also remained at or above acceptable levels.

 

Different insects were a concern at times during the growing season, but few were widespread or season-long outside of the fall armyworm. Unless treated, the fall armyworm devastated those producers who planted in late August into early September. Many fields had to be replanted, and some producers commented that this was the worst that they had ever observed. Unfortunately, some reports indicated the fall armyworm was still causing damage into early November. The dry weather experienced across the state through the winter provided ideal conditions for winter grain mite and brown wheat mite to thrive on wheat plants coming out of winter dormancy, and there were some reports of fields warranting control. Aphids were not really on the radar screen of most producers until mid-March, but this pest was still not the limiting factor as observed in other years. Despite the low aphid numbers, Barley Yellow Dwarf (BYD) was evident in some fields as flag leaves and heads started to emerge. While there was quite a bit of leaf purpling and yellowing associated with BYD, there was not much stunting observed, with stunting resulting from “hot spots” of aphid pressure with early-season transmission of the virus. Wheat Streak Mosaic (WSM), transmitted by the wheat curl mite, was an issue again for producers in southwestern Oklahoma, but the overall impact of WSM was not as much as the 2016-2017 crop season. Reasons for this were related to later planting and emergence of some wheat; additionally, fields which may have had WSM were abandoned due to the drought or cut and baled for hay before symptoms could be observed.

 

Diseases were at low levels overall during the season, primarily due to the drought conditions. Parts of central to southcentral Oklahoma did experience low levels of powdery mildew, leaf rust, and stripe rust. In some cases, powdery mildew could be observed high in the canopy. For the remainder of the state, it was difficult to find foliar diseases, especially during stem elongation into the grain-fill period. One disease more prominent than in years past was Fusarium foot dry (dryland root rot). Signs and symptoms of this disease appeared suddenly during early May as hot temperatures returned and as the crop progressed through grain-fill. However, symptoms of this disease can appear similar to symptoms of premature death caused by freeze, drought, and other conditions. In parts of the northwest and panhandle regions, symptoms of dryland root rot may have been confused with symptoms caused by the drought and/or freeze, whereas in others (such as the wheat variety trial at Lahoma), damage caused by the April freeze events was expressed distinctly earlier. Because of the impact that leaf rust and stripe rust have had over the past several years, producers were ready to apply a foliar fungicide to susceptible varieties, but unfavorable conditions for disease development did not warrant an application in most cases. Variety trial results from Apache and Lahoma indicated that producers in these areas were justified in not spraying, as no evidence of a positive response to a fungicide application was found. However at Chickasha where low to medium levels of leaf and stripe rust and medium to high levels of powdery mildew were present, the two fungicide applications implemented at this location contributed to protecting the yield potential for a number of varieties compared to the non-treated plots of those same varieties.

Harvest for Oklahoma Wheat About to Wrap Up

Report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission

 

Despite the scattered rains across parts of Northern Oklahoma this week, harvest progressed in most areas. Rainfall in the Panhandle region was limited and this allowed harvesters to get a majority of the irrigated wheat out of the fields. It is reported across the Panhandle and in North Central Oklahoma that approximately 5% of the crop is left in the field to harvest. In Northern Oklahoma the issue now is muddy fields, but producers are hopeful they will get back in these areas by the end of the weekend to finish this 2018 season. Test weights declined in Northern Oklahoma this past couple weeks with all the moisture. Most elevators are reporting that since the majority of the crop was harvested before the rains, overall it is not going to impact the final averages. Grain quality for the 2018 wheat crop across Oklahoma will be favorable with high test weights and high protein contents. Test weights on average will range from 60 to 62 lbs./bu., with reports on protein running 12.5 to 13%.  While quality will be high, the amount USDA currently estimates the Oklahoma Wheat crop to be forecasted at is 52 million bushels, down 47 percent from last year. Yield per acre is expected at 26 bushels, with 2 million acres that will be harvested.  This will be the last harvest report published by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission for the 2018 season.

 

Percentages of Harvest Completed Across Oklahoma

Southwest Oklahoma 99% Complete

South Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

West Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

North Central Oklahoma 95% Complete

Northwest Oklahoma 98% Complete

Northeast Oklahoma 99% Complete

Panhandle 95% Complete

Entire State of Oklahoma 98% Complete

 

For more information on winter wheat acreage, yield and production estimates in other states click on the USDA June Crop Production Report listed below.

https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Oklahoma/Publications/Oklahoma_Crop_Reports/2018/spr-crop-prod-06-2018.pdf

Harvest for Oklahoma Wheat Slows this Week with 93% of Harvest Completed

Report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission

 

The Oklahoma wheat harvest has not progressed much from our report given on Tuesday, June, 19th due to the rains that have been going through the Panhandle and Northern regions of Oklahoma over this past week. Some producers have reported over 6 inches of moisture in the last seven days, even in several parts of the Panhandle. As of today, harvest has been progressing in Boise City, where moisture received has still been slim. Producers in other parts of the Panhandle are hoping to get into the fields today and tomorrow. While in some areas, it will still be a few more days, even in parts of Northern Oklahoma. Grain quality to this point continues to be favorable with high test weights and high proteins; however, the producers in parts of Northern Oklahoma are concerned that test weights will be impacted on what is left in the field. Nothing has been reported on irrigated wheat in the Panhandle regions since many producers were just getting started with harvest before the rains came in. Test weights are averaging 60 to 62 lbs./bu. on the wheat being harvested today in the Panhandle, with reports on protein running 12.5 to 13%. Yields reported on the dryland have ranged from 10 bushels per acre to the mid 20’s. An occasional report of dryland wheat making in the high 30’s has been reported.

 

Percentages of Harvest Completed Across Oklahoma

Southwest Oklahoma 99% Complete

South Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

West Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

North Central Oklahoma 85% Complete

Northwest Oklahoma 94% Complete

Northeast Oklahoma 99% Complete

Panhandle 52% Complete

Entire State of Oklahoma 93% Complete

 

For more information on winter wheat acreage, yield and production estimates in other states click on the USDA June Crop Production Report listed below.

https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Oklahoma/Publications/Oklahoma_Crop_Reports/2018/spr-crop-prod-06-2018.pdf

 

The next harvest report from the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published on Tuesday July 3, 2018. 

Harvest for Oklahoma Wheat 90% Complete

Report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission

 

The Oklahoma Wheat harvest is mostly complete for the Southwest, South Central, Central, West Central, Central, and Northeast parts of the state. In some of these areas, producers are finishing up with their last fields. Harvest continues to move forward in the North Central, Northwest, and Panhandle regions of the state. Across the state, test weights continue to be favorable, with above average proteins reported from the Oklahoma/Texas line to the Oklahoma/Kansas line. Based on reports from elevator managers, this week’s harvest continues to come in with lower than predicted yields from the North Central part of the state. Dryland wheat yields in the Panhandle region being harvested are coming in with higher yields than predicted, but many of those yields are still making in the low 20’s with an occasional dryland yield being reported in the mid 30’s depending on the location. Some of the irrigated wheat around Guymon has been harvested, but no reports on yields have been received. While yields across the state have not been as favorable as the industry would like, overall quality of this crop still looks to be encouraging as producers in the Northern and Panhandle regions of the state work to get the crop out. The USDA June 12th Crop production estimates for Oklahoma are predicting 2 million acres to be harvested with a 26 bushel per acre yield, making the Oklahoma production estimate 52 million bushels for the 2018 crop.

 

Percentages of Harvest Completed Across Oklahoma

Southwest Oklahoma 99% Complete

South Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

West Central Oklahoma 99% Complete

North Central Oklahoma 77% Complete

Northwest Oklahoma 90% Complete

Northeast Oklahoma 99% Complete

Panhandle 50% Complete

Entire State of Oklahoma 90% Complete

 

For more information on winter wheat acreage, yield and production estimates in other states click on the USDA June Crop Production Report listed below.

https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Oklahoma/Publications/Oklahoma_Crop_Reports/2018/spr-crop-prod-06-2018.pdf

 

North Central Oklahoma

 

Enid- Harvest is reported to be 95% complete. Test weights are ranging all over the board, from 56 to 62 lbs./bu. depending on the variety and location. The average test weights for this area to date are 59 to 60 lbs./bu. Proteins are reported to be ranging from 11.5 to as high as 16%. Elevator locations for the most part have been saying that as harvest progresses overall, they will be looking at a 12.5% protein average for the region. Yields have been reported all over the board from the mid teens to the mid 30’s.

Kremlin/Medford/Nardin/Nash/Renfrow- Harvest is 75 to 80% complete depending on the location. Test weights have been averaging 58.5 lbs./bu. for the region. Proteins reported in the 12 to 13% range. Yields are ranging from the low 20’s to the mid 40’s, with a lot of wheat trending more in the mid 20’s to mid 30’s.

Blackwell- Harvest is reported to be 85% complete. Test weights are ranging from 55 to 61 lbs./bu., with an average of 59 lbs./bu. overall. Yields reported in the mid 20’s to mid 30’s.  Proteins have ranged from 11 to 17% with an average coming in at 12.8%.

 

Northwest Oklahoma

 

Alva- Test weights reported in the ranges of 59.5 to 60 lbs./bu. Proteins are averaging 12.5%. Harvest is approximately 99% complete. Yield reports have ranged in the mid-teens to the 30’s depending on location. An occasional yield in the mid 40’s has been reported from time to time.

Shattuck-  Harvest is 80% complete. Test weights are 60 lbs./bu. or above. Yields on the dryland are averaging 10 to 15 bushels per acre. On the irrigated wheat, yields are making in the mid 30’s to the mid 60’s depending on location. The protein average was reported at 13%, although it has not been uncommon to see proteins in the 14 and 15% range. 

 

The Panhandle

 

Buffalo- Harvest did not last long in this region and is 99% complete. Yields have been reported in the mid teens to mid 20’s. Proteins have ranged from 13 to 14%. Most of the wheat was grazed or abandoned in this area due to the drought.

Hooker- Harvest on the dryland wheat is moving in full force, and is estimated 50 to 60 percent complete. Proteins averaging 13%. Test weights averaging 60.5 lbs./bu. Yields reported from 9 to as high as 25 bushels per acre for the most part. One producer reported his field of dryland wheat to have made 37 bushels per acre. No reports on irrigated wheat harvest for this week.

Keyes- Harvest is approximately 30% complete. Test weights have ranged from 57 to 62 lbs./bu. Yields have been reported from as low as 10 to as high as 30 bushels per acre depending on the location. Proteins are averaging 12.5%.

 

Northeast Oklahoma

 

Afton- Harvest is approximately 99% complete. Test weights reported from 60 to 63 lbs./bu.  Proteins ranging from 10 to 13%. This region is averaging 11.5% on protein. Yields reported from the low 30’s to as high as 70 bushels per acre. Overall the yields and quality have been favorable. 

Miami –Harvest is approximately 99% complete. Test weights reported from 60 to 63 lbs./bu.  Proteins ranging from 10 to 12.5%. This region is averaging 11.0% on protein. Yields reported from the low 20’s to as high as 70 bushels per acre. Overall the yields and quality have been favorable.

 

The final harvest report from the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published on Tuesday June 26, 2018.  After this week, harvest reporting will only take place in the Northern and Panhandle regions of the state.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Continues with Majority of Cutting Left in Northern and Panhandle Regions

Report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission

 

The Oklahoma Wheat harvest is winding down in the Southern and Central areas of the state, with combines rolling in most parts of the northern and Panhandle regions. In the far NE part of the state around Afton and Miami, heavy rains have hindered harvest for the next couple days. Moisture was also received in central regions of the wheat belt around Marshall and Guthrie mid-morning this Tuesday. Producers are hopeful we will miss the slight chance of predicted rains tonight and tomorrow. Across the state, test weights have been favorable, with above average protein coming in from the Oklahoma/Texas line to the Oklahoma/Kansas line. Based on reports from elevator managers this week, harvest is coming in as predicted with lower than average yields. The decline in planted wheat acres as well as abandonment from the long-term drought has made this harvest progress extremely fast for producers, custom harvesters, and elevator operators. While the yields have not been as favorable as the industry would like, overall the quality of this crop looks to be encouraging for the milling and baking industries, especially when it comes to protein functionalities. The USDA June 12th Crop Production estimates for Oklahoma were unchanged from the May 10th estimate, predicting 2 million acres to be harvested with a 26 bushel per acre yield making the Oklahoma production estimate 52 million bushels for the 2018 crop.

 

Percentages of Harvest Completed Across Oklahoma

Southwest Oklahoma 99% Complete

South Central Oklahoma 98% Complete

Central Oklahoma 98% Complete

West Central Oklahoma 90% Complete

North Central Oklahoma 55% Complete

Northwest Oklahoma 55% Complete

Northeast Oklahoma 40% Complete

Panhandle 37% Complete on Dryland—No Reports on irrigated Wheat Being Harvested to date! 

Entire State of Oklahoma 77% Complete

 

For more information on winter wheat acreage, yield, and production estimates in other states, click on the USDA June Crop Production Report listed below.

https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Oklahoma/Publications/Oklahoma_Crop_Reports/2018/spr-crop-prod-06-2018.pdf

 

Southwest Oklahoma

 

Grandfield- Wheat harvest is 99.5% complete. Proteins have not been as high in this southern corridor like in other parts of Oklahoma but are still averaging around 11 to 11.5%. Test weights on the wheat have been ranging from 60 to 62 lbs./bu. Yields have ranged all over the board from as low as 15 to as high as 60 bushels per acre, depending on the location. East of Hwy 36, the yields were much higher. West of Hwy 36, yields decline the further west you move. While producers were thankful for the higher reported yields, it is important to note these higher yields will not make up for the losses and lower yields reported in this trade territory of Southwest Oklahoma overall.

Lawton- Wheat harvest is 97% complete. Test weights reported in a range from 60 to 63 lbs./bu. Protein averages reported at 11.5 to 12.5%. Yields reported from 11 to as high as 45 bushels per acre depending on the location in this trade territory.  The Eastern region in this area had some favorable yields, while the area West of Lawton had much lower yields the further west you move.

Sentinel/Rocky- Test weights have ranged from 58 to 63 lbs./bu. The overall average for test weights will range from 60 to 61 lbs./bu. Yields reported to be making anywhere from 15 to the mid- 30’s. No proteins have been reported. Harvest is estimated to be 99% complete in this area.

Clinton- Test weights have ranged from 60 to 62 lbs./bu. One field was reported to come in at 40 bushels per acre while everything else is being reported in the mid 20’s. Protein averages for the area are reported at 13%. Harvest is 75% complete. While yields have been higher than expected, collections will be way down due to abandonment of wheat acres from the drought and for other crops.

 

Central Oklahoma

 

Hinton-  Harvest is 98% complete. Test weights are averaging 60 to 63 lbs./bu. Protein average is reported at 12.5%. Yields for the most part ranging from the low 30’s to the mid 40’s. Crop production is predicted to be way down due to increased cotton and soybean acres.

El Reno- Harvest is 97% complete. Test weights are ranging from 60 to 63 lbs./bu.  Proteins reported from 11.2 to 13.9%. This region is looking at a 12% protein average.  Yields reported to be ranging from 22 to as high as 55 bushels per acre, depending on location and rainfall amounts.

KingfisherHarvest is 98% complete. Test weights reported at a 60 lbs./bu. average.  Yields are reported from as low as 5 to as high as 51 bushels per acre. Protein averages are coming in at 12.5%. Grazing did have an impact on yields in this region. Lower yields or complete abandonment start taking place on the Kingfisher/Blaine county lines, due to the severe impacts of the drought. Foreign material is significantly down from previous years, a much cleaner crop is being reported.

 

North Central Oklahoma

 

Enid- Harvest is reported to be 60% complete. Test weights are ranging all over the board, from 56 to 62 lbs./bu. depending on the variety and location. The average test weights for this area to date are 59 to 60 lbs./bu. Proteins are reported to be ranging from 11.5 to as high as 16%. Elevator locations for the most part have been saying that as harvest progresses overall we will be looking at a 12.5% protein average for the region. Yields have been reported all over the board from the mid teens to the mid 30’s.

Hillsdale- Test weights are ranging from 58 to 62 lbs./bu. Yields reported in the mid 20’s to mid 30’s. A lot of acres in this region have been abandoned due to the drought. 

Kremlin/Medford/Nardin/Nash/Renfrow- Harvest is 35 to 40% complete in these regions. Test weighs have been coming in higher than reported last week, but the current average for the area is 58.9 lbs./bu. Proteins reported in the 12 to 13% range. Yields on the wheat harvest ranging from the low 20’s to the mid 40’s.

Blackwell- Harvest is reported to be 25% complete. Test weights are ranging from 55 to 61 lbs./bu., with an average of 58 lbs./bu. overall. Yields reported in the high 20’s to mid 30’s. Proteins have ranged from 11 to 17% with an average coming in at 12.2%.

 

Northwest Oklahoma

 

Alva- Test weights reported in the ranges of 59.5 to 60 lbs/bu. Proteins are reported as an average at 12.5%. Harvest is approximately 60 to 70% complete. The majority of the wheat that is left is in lower areas that had heavy rains a few weeks ago. In some of those areas it has just started drying out for producers to get into these fields. For the most part yields are ranging in the mid 30’s, with some reports of the occasional yield in the mid 40’s.

Shattuck-  Harvest is 45% complete. Test weights are 60 lbs./bu. or above. Yields on the dryland averaging 10 to 15 bushels per acre. On the irrigated wheat yields are making in the mid 30’s. The protein average was reported at 13%, although it has not been uncommon to see proteins in the 14 and 15% range. 

 

The Panhandle

 

Buffalo- Harvest just got started this week. Yields have been reported in the mid teens to mid 20’s. Proteins have ranged from 13 to 14%. Harvest will not be long in this area as much of the crop has been grazed or destroyed due to the drought.

Hooker- Harvest on the dryland wheat is moving in full force. Harvest on the dryland wheat is estimated 30 percent complete. Proteins averaging 13%. Test weights averaging 60.5 lbs./bu. Yields reported from 9 to as high as 25 bushels per acre for the most part.  One producer reported his field of dryland wheat to have made 37 bushels per acre. No reports on irrigated wheat harvest for this week.

 

Northeast Oklahoma

 

Afton- Harvest is approximately 50% complete. Test weights reported from 60 to 63 lbs./bu. Proteins ranging from 10 to 13%. This region is averaging 11.5% on protein. Yields reported from the low 30’s to as high as 70 bushels per acre. Overall the yields and quality have been favorable. Harvest did come to a stop today with rains that came early this morning. If we miss the rains later tonight  producers are hopeful to be back in the fields in this region over the weekend.

Miami- Harvest is approximately 25% complete. Test weights reported from 60 to 63 lbs./bu.  Proteins ranging from 10 to 12.5%. This region is averaging 11.0% on protein. Yields reported from the low 20’s to as high as 70 bushels per acre. Overall the yields and quality have been favorable. Harvest did come to a stop today with rains that came early this morning. If we miss the rains later tonight producers are hopeful to be back in the fields in this region over the weekend.

 

The next harvest report from the Oklahoma Wheat Commission will be published on Tuesday June 19, 2018. After this week, wheat harvest reporting for Southern and Central Oklahoma is considered complete. The harvest report next week will only cover North Central, Northeast, Northwest and Panhandle regions.

 

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Moves Across the State from South to North

Report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission

 

The Oklahoma wheat harvest continues to progress in most regions of the state with the exception of far Northwestern and Panhandle areas. Early test cuttings have been accepted at Shattuck this afternoon with reports of one sample at 14.9% moisture.  Elevator managers and producers are hopeful harvest will begin in this region tomorrow. Two weeks since first cuttings were accepted down at Frederick, OK, harvest has been progressing rapidly across the state with the hot dry temperatures. Favorable proteins and test weights continue to be reported across the state, but early reports on test weights in the far northern areas of the state are coming in lower than expected on the first cuttings. Producers and elevator managers are hopeful the test weights will rise in this region and that yields will also be better as harvest progresses (harvest in the Northern regions of the state are being reported anywhere from 5 to 15% completed based on locations). While protein qualities and test weights have been promising for the most part across Oklahoma, lower yields and lack of acres with losses to cotton and other crops continue to make this an extremely fast-moving harvest. In several locations across the central and western corridors of the state from Texas to Kansas, many elevator managers have mentioned they hope to take in 10 percent of what they would in a normal year.  As of today, it looks like the May 10th USDA estimates of the Oklahoma Wheat Crop at 2 million acres with a 26 bushel per acre average for a total of 52 million bushels to be harvested in the state will be right on target. This number could come in lower than anticipated based on the increased reports of abandonment.

 

Southwest Oklahoma

 

Grandfield- Wheat harvest is 95% complete. Proteins have not been as high in this southern corridor like in other parts of Oklahoma but are still averaging around 11 to 11.5%. Test weights on the wheat have been ranging from 60 to 62 lbs./bu. Yields have ranged all over the board from as low as 15 to as high as 60 bushels per acre, depending on the location. East of Hwy 36, the yields were much higher. West of Hwy 36, yields decline the further west you move. While producers were thankful for the higher reported yields, it is important to note these higher yields will not make up for the losses and lower yields reported in this trade territory of Southwest Oklahoma overall.

Duke- Test weights reported in a range from 59 to 60 lbs./bu. Protein averages reported at 13.5%. Yields reported from the mid-teens to the mid 20’s. Harvest reported to be 60% complete.

Gotebo- Test weights reported in a range from 59 to 60 lbs./bu. Protein averages 12.5 to 13%.  Yields reported in the mid-teens to mid-20s. Harvest reported to be 50% complete.

Hobart- Test weights reported to be averaging 60 lbs./bu. Protein averages reported at 12.5 to 13%. Yields reported in the mid-teens to mid-20s. Harvest reported to be 50% complete.

Lone Wolf- Test weights reported at a 61 lbs./bu. average. Protein averages reported at 12.5 to 13%. Yields reported in the mid-teens to mid-20s. Harvest reported to be 50% complete.

Carter- Test weights reported at a 60 lbs./bu. average. Protein averages reported at 12.5 to 13%. Yields reported in the mid-teens to mid-20s. Harvest reported to be 50% complete.

Sentinel/Rocky- Test weights have been averaging 62 lbs./bu. Yields reported to be making anywhere from 13 to 30 bushels per acre. No proteins have been reported.  Harvest is estimated to be 35 to 45% complete in this area.

In most of these locations of Southwest Oklahoma, elevators are hoping to take in 10% of what they normally would due to the severe drought and loss of wheat acres to cotton acres.

 

Central Oklahoma

 

Okarche- Test weights are averaging 60 lbs./bu. Protein average is reported at 12.79%. A lot of 13 to 14% proteins have been reported, with some as high as 16.5%. Yields for the most part ranging from the mid-20s to the mid-30s with the occasional report of 40 or higher. Harvest around Okarche reported to be 50 to 60% complete.

Kingfisher/Omega- Harvest for this area is 60 to 65% completed. Test weights reported from 58 to 62 lbs./bu. Yields are reported from the mid-20s to the mid-30s. Protein averages are coming in at 12.5%. Grazing did have an impact on yields in this region. Lower yields or complete abandonment start taking place on the Kingfisher/Blaine county lines, due to the severe impacts of the drought. Foreign material is significantly down from previous years, a much cleaner crop is being reported.

Loyal- Harvest in this area is 40% complete. Test weights averaging a strong 60 lbs./bu. Yields are making in the mid-20s to the low-30s for the most part.  Protein averages coming in at 12.5%. Foreign material is significantly down in this region from previous years, a much cleaner crop is being reported.

 

North Central Oklahoma

 

Enid- Test weights are ranging all over the board, from 56 to 62 lbs./bu. depending on the variety and location. Proteins are reported to be ranging from 11.5 to as high as 16%.  Elevator locations for the most part have been saying that it has not been uncommon to see 13 to 14% protein averages for specific locations, although these numbers might not be completely representative of the overall 2018 crop since only 5 to 25% of the crop has been harvested to date in this area. Yields have been reported all over the board from the mid teens to the mid-30s.

Kremlin/Medford/Nardin/Nash/Renfrow- Early reports from what has been harvested in these locations have test weights ranging from 54.5 to 60 lbs./bu. Currently the averages from the region are coming in around that 57.5 to 58.5 lbs./bu (harvest is just starting with 5% complete). Elevators and producers in the area are hopeful test weights will pick up with the better quality wheat. Proteins  reported in the 12 to 13% range. Yields on the early harvested wheat ranging from 15 to 30 bushels per acre.

 

Northwest Oklahoma

 

Alva- Test weights reported in the ranges of 57 to 59 lbs/bu. Proteins are reported in the 12 to 13% range.

No actual yields have been reported although it is expected this area will see ranges from the mid-teens to the mid-30s depending on location and variety. It is predicted that 15 to 20% of this region is harvested.

Shattuck- At the time of this report on Tuesday morning, harvest had not started, but one sample was tested at 14.9% moisture. The test weight on that sample was 60 lbs./bu. The protein was reported at 12%. Producers are hopeful harvest will begin late Tuesday evening or on Wednesday, June 6th.

 

The Panhandle

Harvest has not begun in this region, but around the Buffalo, Guymon and Hooker regions, harvest is predicted to start on the dry-land wheat by this coming weekend.

Wheat Disease Update – May 31, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

 

Wednesday through Friday (May 23-25) of last week, I was in western Oklahoma (Clinton area) and at field days in the panhandle at Goodwell and Hooker (Texas County), Keyes (Cimarron County) and Balko (Beaver County). The only disease observed of significance was indicated by white heads in fields. Often this was the result of Fusarium (dryland) root rot as reported in the last update (May 17, 2018). In fields showing this root rot, the white heads and white tillers were scattered across the field with an incidence ranging from low to moderate (Figure 1). Other fields in the panhandle exhibited large areas of not just white heads and tillers, but also white secondary tillers that had not headed. In these fields, some root rot was found, but Dr. David Marburger (OSU Small Grains Extension Specialist) and I believe that many of the white tillers/secondary tillers were the result of drought, freeze, or a combination of both. Often such tillers showed clean lower stems with no indication of root rot. We believe these secondary tillers were completely white without heading because they were sloughed off as a result of the stress from drought, freeze, or a combination of both. We suspect that more of these whiteheads will show in the coming week in northwestern OK and the panhandle, but the wheat crop is quickly turning and the whiteheads may not be as evident.

 

This likely is the last update I will be sending out this season as harvest in the southern half of Oklahoma has started with the crop quickly maturing in the northern half.

 

Figure 1.  White heads of wheat due to root rot. Typically the white heads are scattered in a field and can range from a low to high incidence. Notice in the middle photo just a few tillers of an individual plant are affected. [Credit for middle photo to Brad Babek, County Educator, Washita County]

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2018 Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Begins in South and Central Oklahoma over the Memorial Day Weekend

Report by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission

 

Harvest for the 2018 season has begun in Oklahoma with combines rolling in the southwestern part of the state over the Memorial Day weekend. While much of the crop has been abandoned due to severe drought conditions in western regions of the state, some elevator locations in the south-central corridor have been reporting decent yields and favorable qualities on the wheat that is being harvested (the south-central corridor received rains in early spring that were timely). We have also had reports of wheat harvest beginning in central regions of the state around the Okarche, Kingfisher, Loyal, and Omega areas. While early reports are showing favorable proteins and test weights on the wheat being harvested, many elevator locations in the western part of the state predict this will be one of the fastest wheat harvests they have ever seen. This is based on all the acres abandoned due to the severe drought conditions that have plagued this part of the state since October. It is important to note we have also seen a decline in wheat acres due to increased cotton, sesame, and soybean plantings (one elevator location mentioned they hope to take in 10% of what they would in a normal year due to the drought and increased plantings of other crops). Producers are also hopeful the predicted storms tonight and Wednesday will pass thru without causing any damage.

 

Grandfield- Wheat harvest has just started in this region with most of the custom cutters now in town. On the wheat that was harvested over the weekend, test weights were running at 62 to 63 lbs./bu. Early protein reports were showing ranges from 11.5 to 12%. Yields from some of the producers have been reported better than expected with some reports of 40 to 50 bushel averages.

 

Frederick- Early reports from this region before the weekend had reports of one load of wheat coming in at 12.7% moisture, 62 lbs./bu., and protein at 12%. No yields from the weekend have been reported, although it is predicted that harvest will move rather quickly with little wheat harvested based on abandonment in the western half.

 

Snyder- This region took in over 85,000 bushels of grain over the weekend, and harvest is just starting to move at full speed. Reports so far on test weights have been exceptional with most of the wheat weighing 60 lbs./bu. or better. There have been a couple loads where weights were running 58 lbs./bu. The quality of the wheat has not had much dockage. Yields in this area have been reported all over the board ranging from the low 20’s to mid 40’s. No proteins have been reported.

 

Altus/Lone Wolf- Test weights on the wheat in this region have been averaging 60 to 62 lbs./bu. Proteins on the wheat to this point have been ranging from 10.5 to 12.5%, with more of the wheat coming in at that 11.5 to 12% protein range. No yields have been reported, although it is predicted that harvest will move extremely fast due to decline in planted acres of wheat and abandonment from the drought.

 

Sentinel- As of Tuesday morning, one sample was tested, but the moisture was too high.  Producers are hopeful they will be able to start harvest within the next day or two in this region.

 

Clinton- As of Tuesday morning, no wheat had been taken in this region. 

 

Hinton-  As of Tuesday morning, no wheat had been taken in this region.

 

Union City- One sample was taken at 14% moisture as of Tuesday morning, so producers are  hopeful that within in the next day harvest will get rolling in this region.

 

Banner- As of Tuesday morning, no wheat had been taken in this region.

 

Okarche- Wheat harvest has begun in this region on Memorial Day, with a few loads received. Test weights on the earlier harvested wheat was lower with ranges from the mid 50’s to 58 lbs./bu. Protein averages on earlier reports are coming in much better than the past couple years with ranges of 12 to 14% being reported. No yields were reported at this time.

 

Kingfisher- Harvest began over the weekend in this region with test weights averaging anywhere from 60 to 62lbs./bu. Proteins have been reported from as low as 10.9% to as high as 14%. Most of the proteins are coming in at 11.5% or higher on this earlier harvested wheat. Some yields have been reported to be making in the mid 40’s on what has been received so far. Keep in mind, much of the wheat has been abandoned west of the Kingfisher trade territory due to the persistent drought conditions that have existed since October.

 

Omega- Harvest has begun in this region on some of the earlier planted and heavily grazed wheat. Yields on the earlier wheat were reported to be making in the low 20’s.  Test weights were being reported at 56 to 58 lbs./bu.  Protein on one load of wheat was reported at 17.4%, and that variety was Doublestop CL+.  Producers are hopeful they will get into wheat that have better test weights and yields in this area towards the end of the week.

Wheat Disease Update – May 17, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

Although not as obvious as in previous weeks, powdery mildew is still hanging on in Oklahoma, and has even moved up onto the heads in some fields. One such field is my foliar fungicide trial here at Stillwater. Examining this trial yesterday revealed many of the lower heads were lightly to moderately infected with powdery mildew (Figure 1). This is one of the few times I have seen powdery mildew move onto wheat heads in Oklahoma. It is important to note that these infected heads are the ones produced on the lower tillers beneath the main, taller tillers. I did not find any powdery mildew on any of the higher heads. This appears to me to be a light to moderate infection severity, but I have not had a lot of experience with powdery mildew on wheat heads, so this is just my estimation. Exactly how much of an impact this powdery mildew will have on yield and test weight may be hard to determine because the level of powdery mildew on these heads seemed to be fairly constant across all treatments.

 

Figure 1.  Powdery mildew on wheat heads in a foliar fungicide trial near Stillwater, OK. Note lower heads in background also show powdery mildew, but there was no powdery mildew on higher heads.

fig1a5.17  fig1b5.17

 

Yesterday, I also observed leaf rust on scattered leaves in the foliar fungicide trial at Stillwater (mostly in the not-sprayed control plots). Typically this was just a couple pustules scattered on a leaf, but there were a few leaves as shown in Figure 2. If you enlarge Figure 2, you can see what looks like the remnant of stripe rust stripes with a few telia (small black dots) associated with the stripes. There also appears to be a pustule or two of powdery mildew. As indicated, leaves infected to this level were not common, but this does indicate that leaf rust is starting to appear and may increase a bit over the next 7-10 days. However, this is a late infection as this trial is at late milk to early soft dough. Hence, the leaf rust will have only a minimal impact on yield even if it does increase significantly.

 

Figure 2.  Leaf rust on a flag leaf at Stillwater, OK on May 16, 2018. Note that some inactive stripe rust also is visible in the center of the leaf (you will have to enlarge the photo to see this) but it appears to be “shutting down” as indicated by the small, black telia. A lesion or two of powdery mildew also is present.

fig25.17

 

Finally, Brad Babek (County Educator, Washita County in southwestern Oklahoma) reported increasing areas of white heads in wheat fields (Figure 3). In cases where I have observed such heads this year, it has been due to dryland (Fusarium) root rot. Typically the roots will be rotted and often the lowest part of the stem is discolored (dark) and often there is a pinkish-purple color associated with the lower tiller and roots. Splitting such a tiller often reveals a stem filled with white or pinkish-white fungal growth (Figure 3).

 

Figure 3.  Whiteheads on wheat tillers in Washita County (western Oklahoma). Photo and report credit to Brad Babek, County Educator, Washita County.

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Wheat Disease Update – May 5, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

This past week I was at field days in southwestern Oklahoma (Apache and Altus), and northeastern Oklahoma (Afton). I did not see a single leaf or stripe rust pustule at any location. Wheat in southwestern OK ranged from at flowering to kernel formation, and typically was short (less than knee high). There were a few exceptions to this, namely a couple fields near Apache that had been planted on summer fallow ground. Wheat in these two fields looked good with some powdery mildew on the low to mid-canopy. There also was evidence of root rot (white heads) that was caused by Fusarium (Figure 1). This root rot was at a low incidence. By contrast, wheat in northeastern OK was at flowering and typically was over knee-high, thick, and with high yield potential. On many varieties, powdery mildew was heavy in the low and mid-canopy, and in a few instances also was present on the flag leaf (Figure 2). Besides powdery mildew, Septoria leaf blotch was heavy throughout the lower leaves of most varieties. In northeastern OK it appears that if a fungicide is going to be sprayed, that needs to be applied as soon as possible.

 

Based on my observations this past week and the recent report from Dr. Clark Neeley (see below), it appears that rust pressure is low across Texas and Oklahoma. Based on Dr. Neeley’s report, it appears that leaf rust has started to appear, but is still somewhat limited. Hence, although there still is time for the rusts (especially leaf rust) to impact Oklahoma, it does not appear there will be an early season (during heading) high rust pressure as in most years. I still would be watchful and if you have a variety known to be susceptible to leaf rust with good yield potential (>about 30 bu/acre) I recommend considering a fungicide application. Be sure however, that your wheat has not matured past the allowed time (as indicated on the label) for the fungicide you apply. Additional information related to foliar fungicides can be found on the fungicide label and in OSU Current Reports 7668, Foliar Fungicides and Wheat Production in Oklahoma, which is available at:

http://wheat.okstate.edu/wheat-management/diseasesinsects/CR-7668web2018.pdf.

 

Reports from other states:

Texas – 4-30-2018; Dr. Clark Neeley; Small Grains/Oilseed Extn Specialist; Texas A&M AgriLife Extension.  “I was attending field days across Central Texas last week and saw mostly leaf rust as I travelled around. Pressure was strong at Thrall, McGregor and Temple, TX, but wheat is pretty far along in all three locations. Mostly in the milk and soft dough stage. I was in a variety trial and producer’s field in Abbott, TX just north of Waco and leaf rust was nearly undetectable despite the field only receiving a Tilt fungicide application at topdress. Stripe rust was still active on ‘Patton’ border there, but teliospores were appearing and thus was shutting down. Did not find any stripe rust in any of the trial entries. I found no or negligible amounts of stripe rust on trial entries at all locations except McGregor. I did find low levels of stripe rust there on flag leaves of HRWW varieties ‘TAM 304’ and ‘WB 4303’ and SRWW variety ‘USG 3120’. Will be at field days later this week and the following week in the Rolling Plains and Northeast Texas and will try to post updates then for those regions.”

 

Figure 1.  Fusarium (dryland) root rot observed on a wheat tiller from a variety demo near Altus, OK. Note the reddish-purple color near the tiller base with fuzzy reddish-purple fungal growth also present inside the split stem (bottom photo).

fig1a5.5fig1b5.5fig1c5.5

 

Figure 2.  Powdery mildew on the flag leaf of a wheat plant in the variety trial near Afton, OK.

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