About Me

David Marburger

David Marburger

Since April 2016, I have served as the Small Grains Extension Specialist at Oklahoma State University. My research and extension efforts focus on delivering science-based recommendations in order to increase small grains production and profitability for stakeholders throughout Oklahoma and the southern Great Plains.

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Wheat Disease Update – May 17, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

Although not as obvious as in previous weeks, powdery mildew is still hanging on in Oklahoma, and has even moved up onto the heads in some fields. One such field is my foliar fungicide trial here at Stillwater. Examining this trial yesterday revealed many of the lower heads were lightly to moderately infected with powdery mildew (Figure 1). This is one of the few times I have seen powdery mildew move onto wheat heads in Oklahoma. It is important to note that these infected heads are the ones produced on the lower tillers beneath the main, taller tillers. I did not find any powdery mildew on any of the higher heads. This appears to me to be a light to moderate infection severity, but I have not had a lot of experience with powdery mildew on wheat heads, so this is just my estimation. Exactly how much of an impact this powdery mildew will have on yield and test weight may be hard to determine because the level of powdery mildew on these heads seemed to be fairly constant across all treatments.

 

Figure 1.  Powdery mildew on wheat heads in a foliar fungicide trial near Stillwater, OK. Note lower heads in background also show powdery mildew, but there was no powdery mildew on higher heads.

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Yesterday, I also observed leaf rust on scattered leaves in the foliar fungicide trial at Stillwater (mostly in the not-sprayed control plots). Typically this was just a couple pustules scattered on a leaf, but there were a few leaves as shown in Figure 2. If you enlarge Figure 2, you can see what looks like the remnant of stripe rust stripes with a few telia (small black dots) associated with the stripes. There also appears to be a pustule or two of powdery mildew. As indicated, leaves infected to this level were not common, but this does indicate that leaf rust is starting to appear and may increase a bit over the next 7-10 days. However, this is a late infection as this trial is at late milk to early soft dough. Hence, the leaf rust will have only a minimal impact on yield even if it does increase significantly.

 

Figure 2.  Leaf rust on a flag leaf at Stillwater, OK on May 16, 2018. Note that some inactive stripe rust also is visible in the center of the leaf (you will have to enlarge the photo to see this) but it appears to be “shutting down” as indicated by the small, black telia. A lesion or two of powdery mildew also is present.

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Finally, Brad Babek (County Educator, Washita County in southwestern Oklahoma) reported increasing areas of white heads in wheat fields (Figure 3). In cases where I have observed such heads this year, it has been due to dryland (Fusarium) root rot. Typically the roots will be rotted and often the lowest part of the stem is discolored (dark) and often there is a pinkish-purple color associated with the lower tiller and roots. Splitting such a tiller often reveals a stem filled with white or pinkish-white fungal growth (Figure 3).

 

Figure 3.  Whiteheads on wheat tillers in Washita County (western Oklahoma). Photo and report credit to Brad Babek, County Educator, Washita County.

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Wheat Disease Update – May 5, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

This past week I was at field days in southwestern Oklahoma (Apache and Altus), and northeastern Oklahoma (Afton). I did not see a single leaf or stripe rust pustule at any location. Wheat in southwestern OK ranged from at flowering to kernel formation, and typically was short (less than knee high). There were a few exceptions to this, namely a couple fields near Apache that had been planted on summer fallow ground. Wheat in these two fields looked good with some powdery mildew on the low to mid-canopy. There also was evidence of root rot (white heads) that was caused by Fusarium (Figure 1). This root rot was at a low incidence. By contrast, wheat in northeastern OK was at flowering and typically was over knee-high, thick, and with high yield potential. On many varieties, powdery mildew was heavy in the low and mid-canopy, and in a few instances also was present on the flag leaf (Figure 2). Besides powdery mildew, Septoria leaf blotch was heavy throughout the lower leaves of most varieties. In northeastern OK it appears that if a fungicide is going to be sprayed, that needs to be applied as soon as possible.

 

Based on my observations this past week and the recent report from Dr. Clark Neeley (see below), it appears that rust pressure is low across Texas and Oklahoma. Based on Dr. Neeley’s report, it appears that leaf rust has started to appear, but is still somewhat limited. Hence, although there still is time for the rusts (especially leaf rust) to impact Oklahoma, it does not appear there will be an early season (during heading) high rust pressure as in most years. I still would be watchful and if you have a variety known to be susceptible to leaf rust with good yield potential (>about 30 bu/acre) I recommend considering a fungicide application. Be sure however, that your wheat has not matured past the allowed time (as indicated on the label) for the fungicide you apply. Additional information related to foliar fungicides can be found on the fungicide label and in OSU Current Reports 7668, Foliar Fungicides and Wheat Production in Oklahoma, which is available at:

http://wheat.okstate.edu/wheat-management/diseasesinsects/CR-7668web2018.pdf.

 

Reports from other states:

Texas – 4-30-2018; Dr. Clark Neeley; Small Grains/Oilseed Extn Specialist; Texas A&M AgriLife Extension.  “I was attending field days across Central Texas last week and saw mostly leaf rust as I travelled around. Pressure was strong at Thrall, McGregor and Temple, TX, but wheat is pretty far along in all three locations. Mostly in the milk and soft dough stage. I was in a variety trial and producer’s field in Abbott, TX just north of Waco and leaf rust was nearly undetectable despite the field only receiving a Tilt fungicide application at topdress. Stripe rust was still active on ‘Patton’ border there, but teliospores were appearing and thus was shutting down. Did not find any stripe rust in any of the trial entries. I found no or negligible amounts of stripe rust on trial entries at all locations except McGregor. I did find low levels of stripe rust there on flag leaves of HRWW varieties ‘TAM 304’ and ‘WB 4303’ and SRWW variety ‘USG 3120’. Will be at field days later this week and the following week in the Rolling Plains and Northeast Texas and will try to post updates then for those regions.”

 

Figure 1.  Fusarium (dryland) root rot observed on a wheat tiller from a variety demo near Altus, OK. Note the reddish-purple color near the tiller base with fuzzy reddish-purple fungal growth also present inside the split stem (bottom photo).

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Figure 2.  Powdery mildew on the flag leaf of a wheat plant in the variety trial near Afton, OK.

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Join us May 11th for the 2018 Lahoma Wheat Field Day!

2018 Lahoma program

Wheat Disease Update – April 26, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

 

Although reports of powdery mildew continue to come in from around the state, perhaps the more important news is that other foliar diseases have started to become active. On April 24, Septoria tritici blotch (Figure 1) was prevalent on lower leaves throughout the variety trial near Walters, OK. Walters is located in southwestern Oklahoma about 20 miles south of Lawton and 10 miles north of the Texas border. Although interesting, Septoria tritici blotch is not the disease of concern as in this trial there also was active leaf rust on lower leaves (Figure 2) and stripe rust on the leaves just below the flag leaf. Dr. Brett Carver (OSU Professor/Wheat Breeder) and Branden Watson (OSU PaSS Graduate Student) also reported active stripe rust at various levels in trials located near Chickasha, OK in central Oklahoma (Figure 3). The photo from Dr. Carver (the right photo in Figure 3) shows much more severe stripe rust than was seen near Walters. These observations indicate that both stripe and leaf rust are increasing through southern and central Oklahoma. This activity will increase through the coming weeks as the forecast indicates continued moisture (rains and dew) coupled with moderate temperature. Wheat in southern Oklahoma was approaching or was actively flowering, so the option of using a fungicide to protect yield potential either is at hand or may be too late. Typically foliar fungicides should be applied for wheat rust control between flag leaf emergence and complete head emergence (Feekes’ growth stages 8 to 10.5). Some fungicides (e.g., Aproach, Headline, Nexicor, Priaxor, and Twinline) are so labeled. However, some fungicides (Tilt, Quilt Xcel, and Trivapro) are labeled for a later application (Feekes 10.5.4, which is the end of flowering with the kernel watery ripe). Many others no longer have a growth stage deadline, but rather are limited by a pre-harvest restriction. That is, there must be a certain number of days that elapse between application and harvest. For some fungicides (Caramba, Folicur, Proline 480, and Prosaro) this is 30 days. For Absolute Maxx, it is 35 days, and for Aproach Prima, it is 45 days. For some fungicides it is a combination of growth stage and days between application and harvest. For specific information, please consult the label for the fungicide. Most fungicides labeled for wheat rust control must be applied by the start of flowering (Feekes’ growth stage 10.5). The only fungicides I know of that have a label allowing for a later application are Tilt, Quilt Xcel, and Trivapro, which can be applied up to Feekes’ 10.5.4 (end of flowering with the kernel watery ripe). In addition to these application deadlines, there often are required pre-harvest intervals so you must allow for a specific number of days to elapse between application of the fungicide and harvest.  For specific information, please consult the label for the fungicide. Additional information related to foliar fungicides also can be found in OSU Current Reports 7668, Foliar Fungicides and Wheat Production in Oklahoma, which is available at: http://wheat.okstate.edu/wheat-management/diseasesinsects/CR-7668web2018.pdf.

 

Figure 1.  Septoria leaf blotch on lower wheat leaf in the variety trial near Walters, OK.

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Figure 2.  Leaf rust on lower wheat leaves near Walters, OK on April 24, 2018.

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Figure 3.  Stripe rust on a wheat leaf (not a flag leaf) near Chickasha, OK on April 24, 2018 (top photo credit to Mr. Branden Watson; bottom photo credit to Dr. Brett Carver).

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Wheat Disease Update – April 13, 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

Powdery mildew (Figure 1) continued to be the primary wheat foliar disease this past week in Oklahoma. Around Stillwater, I have seen powdery mildew on the lower and mid-leaves with severities reaching 90% on the lower leaves. A preponderance of powdery mildew also was indicated by the scouting reports sent in from counties across the central tier of Oklahoma to Zack Meyer (Extension Educator; Kingfisher County) where mildew was reported in Washita and Kingfisher Counties at a light (<25%) severity on lower and mid-leaves. Across the northern tier of counties in Oklahoma, powdery mildew was reported to Josh Bushong (Area Extension Agronomy Specialist; northwest district) from Noble and Garfield Counties at light and heavy (>25%) severities on the lower and mid-leaves. Wheat in central Oklahoma was reported at growth stages 8-9 (flag leaf emerging to flag leaf fully emerged). In northern Oklahoma, wheat was extremely variable with growth stages from 2-8 (tillering to flag leaf emerging) being reported. Again, I want to thank all the educators that participated in this pilot program for reporting powdery mildew, leaf rust and stripe rust, and I would encourage more participation to facilitate the warning of these three foliar diseases of wheat.

Figure 1.  Severe powdery mildew on lower wheat leaves.

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There were not any reports this last week regarding foliar diseases from Texas, and there still have not been any significant reports of stripe or leaf rust across Oklahoma. There was one report of stripe rust in south central Oklahoma from Anderson Farms located near Ardmore, OK. As you can see in Figure 2, the lower leaf shows a heavy infection of active stripe rust while the top leaf shows a heavily infected leaf that has transitioned to the dormant (telial) spore stage of stripe rust. This happens as temperature rises with both day and night temperature being important. Typically day temperature needs to consistently be above about 75-80 F and night temperature about about 65 F. This transition along with very limited reports of stripe rust in Texas and Oklahoma indicate that stripe rust should not be a major factor in wheat this year in Oklahoma. Leaf rust could still develop, but inoculum will need to increase, and to date, there has not been widespread weather (cool and moist) that favors either rust.

 

Figure 2.  Active wheat stripe rust (lower leaf) and stripe rust that has transitioned to the telial (dormant) stage on wheat in south-central Oklahoma.  (Photo credit: Anderson Farms near Ardmore, OK).

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The only other observation this week has been “spots” of barley yellow dwarf as reported last week. However, after the recent freeze events, these barley yellow dwarf “spots” are more difficult to discern because there is widespread burning of leaf tips from the freeze, which has a masking effect.

Wheat Disease Update – 6 April 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

 

Powdery mildew (Figure 1) is showing up on lower leaves in fields and trials around Stillwater, and I have also had reports of powdery mildew on lower leaves from Extension Educators around the state. I also have seen ‘hot spots’ indicative of barley yellow dwarf (Figure 2) around Stillwater, but did not find any aphids associated with these spots. From Texas, Dr. Clark Neely(Small Grains and Oilseed Extension Specialist; Texas A&M AgriLife Extension) relayed to me on April 4 that, “Overall, I think we have avoided the stripe rust and what little was around is shutting down now. Leaf rust is around, but seems lighter than normal for the moment.” Across Oklahoma, wheat leaf and stripe rust still are largely absent, although a few “stripes” of stripe rust were found by Zack Meyer here at Stillwater this morning at an Extension Educators in-service training. This lack of the rusts in Oklahoma is supported by the recently implemented scouting program involving Oklahoma Extension Educators. This program asks county educators to look for and report weekly the occurrence of stripe rust, leaf rust, and/or powdery mildew they observe in commercial fields, variety trials, or variety demonstrations located in their counties. This information is reported by county educators from counties across southern Oklahoma to Heath Sanders (Area Extension Agronomy Specialist; southwest district), from counties across mid-Oklahoma to Zack Meyer (Extension Educator; Kingfisher County) and from counties across northern Oklahoma to Josh Bushong (Area Extension Agronomy Specialist; northwest district). The incidence and severity of these three wheat foliar diseases can then be more accurately summarized and disseminated to facilitate decisions related to applying a fungicide to help manage these diseases on susceptible varieties. For the week ending on April 5, observations reported from across southern and mid-Oklahoma (Jackson, Dewey, Washita, Blaine, and Kingfisher Counties) indicated no leaf or stripe rust and only one report of powdery mildew on lower and mid-leaves in Washita County. It is still a bit early for reports to come in from across northern Oklahoma. Thanks are extended to all the educators that participated in this pilot program, and I would encourage more participation to facilitate this reporting program.

 

Figure 1.  Powdery mildew observed April 5 on lower leaves of wheat in trials around Stillwater, OK.

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Figure 2.  Likely barley yellow dwarf (BYD) “hot spot” observed on wheat in early April (top photo). As time proceeds, these hot spots will develop stronger symptoms of BYD including leaf discoloration ranging from yellowing (middle photo) to purpling in some varieties (bottom photo).

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2018 OSU Wheat Field Day Schedule Announced

We have 32 different stops lined up to talk about a lot of good wheat varieties available to producers. As the weather can force us to change plans at the last minute, please contact your local county Extension office with any questions on the date, time, and location. The schedule listed below is also available on the home page of the wheat.okstate.edu website or by clicking here.

 

A special thanks goes out to the area and county Extension personnel and grower cooperators on helping get these field days scheduled!

2018 OSU wheat field days

 

Impact of recent cold temperatures on Oklahoma wheat

Temperatures on Easter into Monday (Figure 1) and last night into this morning (Figure 2) dipped low enough throughout a large portion of the state to potentially cause some level of injury to the wheat crop. There were a number of areas that spent a significant amount of time with temperatures in the mid to lower 20s over the course of these two cold snaps. Areas in the northwest and into the Panhandle even got as cold as the mid to upper teens. On top of all that, we have cold temperatures forecasted again for later this week.

 

Figure 1. Minimum air temperatures (top graph) during Easter into Monday (April 1-2) and hours spent below freezing (32°F) over the past 48 hours during that same time frame (bottom graph).

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Figure 2. Minimum air temperatures (top graph) during last night into this morning (April 3-4) and hours spent below freezing (32°F) over the past 48 hours (bottom graph).

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April4cumulative.freeze.48hr

 

Keep in mind that the temperature recorded by the nearest weather station or at your house may not quite reflect the actual temperature that the wheat canopy experienced, especially as you increase the distance from where the temperature was recorded and the field itself. Factors such as elevation and topography can influence the temperature, as well as things like large amounts of residue in a no-till situation, for example.

 

What are the temperatures that can damage the wheat plants?

This will depend on the growth stage of the plants. Anecdotal evidence suggests there are varietal differences in resistance to spring freeze injury, but this is likely due to differences in plant growth stages when the freeze event occurred. Earlier maturing varieties are more likely to be injured from these recent freeze events than later maturing varieties because they are likely more advanced. The susceptibility of the wheat plants to freeze injury does steadily increase as we progress throughout the spring from jointing to heading and flowering. Figure 3 listed below is a general guide to the minimum temperature threshold and its impact on yield. These numbers are not exact but provide a decent rule of thumb. It is difficult to have exact numbers because each freeze event is unique. While a field at the jointing growth could spend two hours at 24 F, it is possible that the same amount of injury could occur with at a 28 F temperature that was sustained for a longer period of time.

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Figure 3. Temperatures that can cause injury to winter wheat at different growth stages. Source: Kansas State University publication C646: Spring Freeze Injury to Kansas Wheat.

 

How long should I wait to assess injury?

Another important thing to keep in mind is that we need to be patient before going out an assessing freeze injury. The extent of a significant freeze event may not be apparent 1 or 2 days after. If warm temperatures return quickly, you should wait about 5-7 days before determining the injury. If temperatures remain cool after the freeze event, it may take 10-14 days before the extent of the injury can be fully assessed. Since we still have cooler temperatures in the forecast, we will likely need to wait closer to the 10-14 days.

 

What are some freeze injury symptoms to look for?

A common freeze injury symptom is leaf tips turning yellow and necrotic (Figure 4). This is very often just cosmetic and will not hurt yield in the end. More severe damage can result in the entire leaf turning yellow to white and the plants become flaccid (Figure 5). You may even notice a “silage” smell after several days.

 

Figure 4. Leaf tips which have turned necrotic due to freezing temperatures. Photo taken in March 2017 courtesy of Josh Bushong, OSU northwest area Extension agronomist.

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Figure 5. More severe freeze damage causing the leaves to turn yellow-white with plants losing their overall turgidity. Source: Kansas State University publication C646: Spring Freeze Injury to Kansas Wheat.

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The most important plant part to check is the growing point. This will be important for areas of the state that have fields with plants which are at jointing or past jointing. Sometimes we can see what look like healthy plants overall, but the growing point has been damaged or killed. To get a look at the growing point, you can slice the stem open lengthways. A healthy growing point will have a crisp, whitish-green appearance and be turgid (Figure 6). Often, you can lightly flick the head, and if it bounces back and does not break, it is still healthy. If it is mushy, limp, and breaks or parts of it break off when you lightly flick it, it has been compromised. It may also have a brown color (Figure 7). Another indication that the growing point has been compromised is the next emerging leaf is necrotic.

 

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Figure 6. Close up of a healthy wheat head (growing point). Source: Brenda Kennedy and Dr. Carrie Knott, University of Kentucky

 

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Figure 7. Plants that appear healthy could have damaged heads. Photo taken several years ago courtesy of Dr. Jeff Edwards.

 

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Figure 8. A close up view of the damaged wheat head from Figure 7. Photo taken several years ago.

 

Also, the percent of damaged heads may not translate into percent yield loss. There is still opportunity for wheat at the jointing stage (GS 6) to produce additional tillers and/or retain secondary tillers. Whether or not these tillers are able to compensate for larger tillers that were lost due to freeze will depend on the subsequent weather. If conditions are favorable, there is a chance for late emerging tillers to have a shot at producing grain. If the wheat is more advanced, it will be tougher to make this type of recovery.

 

Do drought conditions exacerbate freeze injury?

When it comes to this question, it is really a mixed bag of results. A lot of anecdotal evidence suggests drought conditions can make freeze injury worse, and that could very well be the case in some scenarios. Water in the soil is a good buffer to resist temperature swings and can prevent the soil from cooling as quickly as the air around it. Therefore, the temperature at the soil surface of a conventionally tilled field with good soil moisture may not get as cold as a similar field with dry soil conditions for example.

 

In theory, the plants themselves under drought conditions should actually be able to withstand cooler temperatures than non-stressed plants as less water content in the plant cells increases the solute concentration (i.e., it takes longer for those cells to freeze). Using the conventionally tilled field example above, we cannot automatically say that a field with dry soil conditions will have worse freeze injury than a field with adequate moisture. Also, if the weather conditions during the day(s) prior to the freeze event were warm and sunny, a significant amount of heat may still be radiated from a field with dry soil conditions and provide some buffer against freeze injury.

 

Final thoughts

Remember that each freeze event is unique. The amount of injury observed will depend on the growth stage of the plants, how low the temperature got, and how long it stayed at those cold temperatures. Other factors such as elevation, residue cover, and moisture can influence the observed temperature within the canopy as well. Because of the number of influential factors, it is important to check each field. It is possible to have variability in injury symptoms among fields and even within fields.

 

Wheat Disease Update – 29 March 2018

This article was written by Dr. Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University – 127 Noble Research Center

405-744-9958

I am still not seeing any foliar diseases around Stillwater, but reports are indicating that inoculum of the wheat rusts (stripe and leaf) have started to increase in Texas. On March 21, Dr. Clark Neely (Small Grains/Oilseed Extension Specialist; Texas A&M AgriLife Extension) indicated that, “A report from Uvalde, TX late last week indicated stripe rust had increased significantly on susceptible checks. A fungicide trial in College Station, TX showed stripe rust building in the lower canopy. Flag leaves were still pretty clean, but F1 and F2 leaves were 5% or greater in much of the trial. The field surrounding the trial did not show any obvious signs of stripe rust at this time, but showed heavier levels of leaf rust. Talked to a grower in the Waco area and he reported leaf rust building in his wheat fields as well.  Expecting dry conditions through the weekend but then turning wet for much of next week, which could facilitate further development.

 

Dr. Amir Ibrahim (Professor & Small Grains Breeder/Geneticist; Texas A&M AgriLife Research) indicated a somewhat similar scenario for wheat rust in south and central Texas by stating on 23-March that, “Uvalde seems to be the first location where we detect wheat stripe rust every year.  Stripe rust is also active at Castroville, College Station and McGregor. Warming temperatures expected at these locations may slow it significantly during coming weeks.”  Based on these two reports and the recent weather conditions in Oklahoma, I would expect stripe and leaf rust to begin to appear across Oklahoma where moisture was received over the last week. It likely has been too dry in western/northwestern OK and the panhandle to facilitate wheat rusts.  Powdery mildew may begin to occur because powdery mildew does not require free moisture but rather just high humidity (see next paragraph).

 

Lanie Hale (Wheeler Brothers located in Geary, OK) indicated on March 29 that, “I’ve been in lots of fields this week; Canton, Okeene, Loyal, Geary, Greenfield and Calumet areas. The dry weather is taking its toll now and reducing harvested bushels daily in most fields I’ve been in. I’m seeing winter grain mites and brown wheat mites, with a few green bugs and cherry aphids. In some of these fields, the mites are taking additional yield also. Mites are a dry weather pest, if we could get a good rain the wheat would outgrow them, but if it doesn’t rain, there’s not going to be much of crop even if sprayed. Heavily grazed fields are failing, but the late planted, well fertilized, ungrazed fields are holding on fairly well (Figure 1). Brian and I saw lots of powdery mildew (Figure 2). This was a field with a thin stand, open canopy, top of the hill, red ground.”

 

Figure 1.  Grazed field (to the right) compared to a non-grazed field (to the left) in western/west-central Oklahoma on about 28-March-2018. (Credit:  Lanie Hale, Wheeler Brothers).

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Figure 2.  Severe powdery mildew infection observe in central/west-central Oklahoma on the lowest leaves in a wheat canopy. Note how leaves above these lowest leaves appear to not be so heavily infected. Photo credit to Lanie Hale, Wheeler Brothers.

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Final First Hollow Stem Update – 3/22

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8” or the diameter of dime) of stem below the developing grain head (full explanation). To give you a point of reference, the average FHS date over the past 20 years at Stillwater is March 6.

 

The latest FHS results from Chickasha (Table 1) and Stillwater (Table 2) are listed below. All wheat varieties at Chickasha and Stillwater have now reached the 1.5 cm threshold, and some of the remaining varieties flew past the threshold since the last sampling date.

 

Keep in mind that several factors influence the onset of FHS. These include the wheat variety, location, temperature, available moisture, level of grazing, and planting date (later sown wheat will typically reach FHS later). The First Hollow Stem Advisor and the updates we provide give an indication of the FHS stem conditions in a particular area. However, because of the number of factors that can influence when FHS occurs, we cannot stress enough the importance of checking for FHS on a field-by-field basis

 

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results by wheat, triticale, rye, barley, and oat variety collected on 2/20/18, 2/26/18, 3/2/18, 3/6/18, 3/8/18, 3/12/18, 3/15/18, and 3/20/18 at Chickasha. Plots were sown on 9/25/17. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8” or the diameter of a dime). The amount of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

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Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results by wheat variety collected on 2/27/18, 3/5/18, 3/8/18, 3/13/18, 3/16/18, and 3/21/18 at Stillwater. Plots were dusted in on 9/15/18 and did not receive significant rainfall until 9/25/17. The triticale, rye, barley, and oat plots were abandoned due to emergence issues. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8” or the diameter of a dime). The amount of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements from non-grazed plots. Varieties that have reached FHS are highlighted in red.

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