Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Continues to Move Ahead Making Great Strides the Past Couple Days

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest is moving forward in all locations across the state with producers making great strides statewide. Things are finally moving better in South Central, Oklahoma, North of El Reno and down by Chickasha as fields are drying up. Elevators are still reporting sprout damage across the state in the Southwest, South Central and Central regions due to excessive moisture in places. The sprout damage has also been variety specific in many instances (Note: Percentages in comparison to non- sprouted wheat has not changed since Monday’s report). In Southwest Oklahoma, some fields have as much at 10 to 30% damage, this would be in 10 percent of the crop from this region. In South Central, fields reported to be having 10% to 18% sprout damage on 20% of the loads being taken in. In Central Oklahoma sprout damage is estimated from 2% to 15%. The majority of sprout damage in these regions is falling in the 0 to 2% category, with 5 to 7% of the crop having as much as 15% damage. In Northern Oklahoma not much sprout damage is being reported. Proteins across the state are favorable with averages coming in between 12 to 13% in most places. Yields are ranging all over the board low teens to mid-20’s in Southwest, Oklahoma.   In South Central Oklahoma, yields being reported from 10 bushels per acre to the mid 30’s. (Yields on areas where harvest is just picking up after the heavy rains last week are doing much better than expected even though sprout damage on some varieties is being reported in this region.) Yields in South Central, from Hinton to El Reno and then South to Chickasha are ranging in the mid 20’s to mid-30’s, which is remarkable given what the crop went thru. It should be noted some areas did have heavy hail damage and we are hearing reports of 20 to 40% losses where hail did occur. Yields in central and Northern Oklahoma are being reported as higher ranging from 15 bushels per acre to as high as 65 bushels per acre.  In the Northern tier of the state where yields are better, regions are still looking at averages in the high 20’s to mid-30’s. It is also important to note several areas in Northwest Oklahoma up by Cherokee and Burlington had severe drought and large portions of that region will not be harvested, which will also have major impact on statewide bushels that are taken in. Test weights have been lowered from Southern Oklahoma to Central Oklahoma, but based on earlier cuttings with higher test weights most locations are still hoping for a 58 bushel per pound average. Test weights being reported from Enid North up around Jefferson, Medford, Lamont, Renfrow, Perry, Tonkawa, Ponca City, and Blackwell ranging from 58-61 pounds. Harvest is just getting started in NE Oklahoma around the Afton and Miami and not enough wheat was taken in to make a report. Harvest is also moving now on the dryland wheat in the Panhandle. The Oklahoma Wheat Commission is now calling Oklahoma wheat harvest 55% completed.

Southwest

Grandfield/Devol/Chattanooga/Lawton- Grandfield is 95% complete, Devol is 99% complete, Chattanooga is 85% complete, Lawton is reported 95% completed. Test weights in this region ranging from 58-60 pounds per bushel. Yields ranging in the low teens to mid-20’s. Proteins ranging from the 11.5% to 12.5%. No sprout damage reported from these locations.

Frederick- Harvest in this region is 99% complete. Test weights ranging from 60 to 61 pounds/bushel.  Proteins ranging from 12 to 12.5% range. Yields being reported from low teens to high twenties, averaging in the low 20’s.

Altus/Duke/Carter- Harvest in this region reported as 95% done. Test weights have dropped some over the past week with the heavy rains and are now trending 56-58 pounds per bushel compared to earlier cuttings making 59 to 60 pounds per bushel. Yields reported from 5 bushel an acre to mid-20’s. Proteins ranging from 13% to 16%.

Lone Wolf/Hobart- Harvest in these regions is reported at 75% complete.  Test weights have dropped slightly and now being reported from 55 to 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields ranging from low teens to mid-20’s.  Proteins reported making from 13% to 16%. 

South Central

Apache- Wheat harvest is moving along in this region and is considered 45% complete. Test weights have been ranging from 57 pounds to 58 pounds per bushel for the most part.  On the intensive management wheat they are seeing some 60 pound test weights. Yields for the most part are ranging from 10 to 35 bushels per acre depending on location, management and variety.

Chickasha- Harvest in this region has really moved forward over the past couple of days once producers have been able to get into fields. Harvest in this region 45% to 50% complete.  Yields are doing much better than expected based on all the heavy rains, high winds and hail damage that occurred. Test weights ranging from 58 to 59 pounds per bushel. Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-30’s.  Some minor sprout damage is being reported but not as bad as expected.  Some producers have had 20 to 40% hail damage losses.

Western Oklahoma

Sentinel/Rocky- Harvest has made great progress over the weekend and is reported at 95% complete.   Test weights reported in the 56 to 60 pound per bushel range. Yields being reported from 14 to 28 bushels per acre.  Proteins ranging from 13% to 17% depending on variety and management practices.

Hinton- Harvest in this area has progressed extremely fast over the last few days.  This region is reported at 75% complete.  Yields are doing better than expected after all the storms that hit prior to last week.  Yields ranging in the mid 30’s, test weights averaging 60.5 pounds.  Proteins ranging from 10% to 17% with a 13.5% average.

Central Oklahoma

El Reno- Harvest has been rolling North of El Reno, and is finally getting started South of El Reno although producers are still fighting mud from last week. They are reporting 40% harvested in this region. Yields are being reported from the low 20’s to the low 40’s depending on variety and management.  Test weights ranging from 57 to 59.5 pounds per bushel.  Protein ranging from 11% to 14.5%

Kingfisher/OmegaHarvest in this region reported to be 80% complete. Test weights have dropped with ranges reported from 57 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Yields averaging in the high 20’s to low 30’s. Proteins have ranged from 10% to 15%, seeing a lot in the 11.5% to 12.5% range.

Reeding- Harvest in this region reported 40% complete. Test weights have dropped with ranges from 57 to 59 pounds per bushel being reported. Yields averaging mid-teens to low 30’s depending on variety and management. Proteins ranging from 11% to 12%.

Loyal- Harvest in this regions reported at 40% complete.  Test weights averaging 57 to 59 pounds per bushel.  Yields on early harvested wheat making in the low 20’s to low 40’s. Protein ranging from 11.5% to 12.5% on early samples.

Northwest OK

Shattuck/Fort Supply-This region being reported at 30% complete. Test weights ranging from 57 to 62 pounds per bushel depending on variety and management.  Yields ranging from 5 bushels to 25 bushels per acre.  Proteins are ranging from 12% to 14%.

Burlington- Harvest in this region reported at 40% complete. A large area in this region much of the crop will not be harvested due to the severe drought.  On the crop that will be harvested test weight for this region averaging 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-40’s on the wheat that will be harvested depending on where moisture was received in a timely manner and management practices.  Proteins ranging from 12% to 13%.

Helena/Goltry- Harvest in this region has been moving full speed ahead, this region being reported as 60% harvested.  Yields reported from the mid-teens to low 30’s for the most part.  Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Proteins are averaging 13%.

Northern Oklahoma

Pond Creek/Lamont- This area reported to be 30% complete.  Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel. Yields being reported in the low 30’s to mid-40’s. Proteins ranging from 12% to 16%.

Medford/Deer Creek- Producers in this region are moving forward and harvest is reported 20% complete. Test weights on early cuttings ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Yields in this region have been reported to be making better because of timely rains.  The yields are ranging from low 30’s to mid-40’s.   Some reports on management intensive wheat to be making in the high 60’s. Proteins have been ranging from 11% to 16%.

Perry/Tonkawa/Ponca City/BlackwellProducers in this region just getting started over the past few days.  Harvest reported at 20% complete. Test weights ranging from 58 to 61 pounds per bushel. Protein averages around 12 to 13%.  Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-40’s with some areas reporting higher yields on management intensive wheat.

Northeast Oklahoma

Early reports of a couple loads being taken in at Miami, and this was on Hard Red Winter (HRW) wheat.  A more detailed report with actual results will be published on Monday of next week once harvest gets rolling, we will also be reporting on the Soft Red Winter (SRW) wheat in this region.  No SRW has been taken in at this time.

Panhandle

Hooker- Harvest on dryland wheat has just started over the past couple of days. Test weights ranging from 58 to 63 pounds per bushel.  On the dryland wheat that is being harvested reports showing it is averaging around 20 bushels per acre on early cuttings. Proteins averaging 12%.

Below see the Heat Maximum and Air Temperatures for Wednesday June 15th. Also please see the 7-day forecast provided by the Oklahoma Mesonet.  The next harvest report will be scheduled for Monday, June 20, 2022.

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest In Full Swing from Border to Border

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest is moving forward in all locations across the state with producers making great strides in the hot dry temperatures.  A large majority of the crop in the region from Clinton, Weatherford, Carnegie, south to Pocasset and Chickasha received major hail damage and heavy rains last week and still fighting mud which will impact overall statewide numbers along with severe drought during the growing season in areas West of I-35.   Elevators are reporting more sprout damage across the state in the Southwest, South Central and Central regions due to excessive moisture in places. 

Yields are ranging all over the board. Low teens to mid-20’s in Southwest, Oklahoma. In South Central Oklahoma, yields are being reported from 10 bushels per acre to the mid 30’s.  Yields in central and Northern Oklahoma are ranging higher from 15 bushels to as high as 65 bushels per acre. Most regions are still looking at averages in the high 20’s to mid-30’s for the most part.  It is also important to note several areas in Northwest Oklahoma by Cherokee and Burlington experienced severe drought and large portions of that region will not be harvested.

Test weights have been lowered in Southern Oklahoma to Central Oklahoma, but based on earlier cuttings with higher test weights, most locations are still hoping for a 58 bushel per pound average. Test weights are being reported higher in NW Oklahoma in the Enid area and fields further north and east towards Jefferson, Medford, Lamont and Renfrow with many weights coming in at 60 pounds per bushel or higher. 

Proteins have ranged across the state between 10% and as high as 17% with averages coming in between 12 to 13% in most places. 

Sprout Damage – Elevators are reporting more sprout damage across the state in the Southwest, South Central and Central regions due to excessive moisture in places.  The sprout damage has also been wheat variety specific in many instances.  In Southwest Oklahoma, there may be as much as 10 to 30% sprout damage in 10% of the crop. In South Central, some fields are reported to having 10% to 18% sprout damage on 20% of the loads being taken in.  In Central Oklahoma, sprout damage is anywhere from 2% to 15% with most of the damage in this region falling in the 0 to 2% category, with 5 to 7% of the crop having as much as 15% damage.  

The Oklahoma Wheat Commission is now calling Oklahoma wheat harvest 45% completed.

Southwest

Frederick- Harvest in this region is 95-97% complete. Test weights ranging from 60 to 61 pounds/bushel.  Proteins ranging from 12 to 12.5%. Yields being reported from low teens to high twenties, averaging in the low 20’s.

Altus/ Duke/ Carter- Harvest in this region reported as 90% done. Test weights have dropped some over the past week with the heavy rains and are now trending 56-58 pounds per bushel compared to earlier cuttings making 59 to 60 pounds per bushel.   Yields reported from 5 bushel an acre to mid-20’s. Proteins ranging from 13% to 16%

Lone Wolf/Hobart- Harvest in these regions is reported at 60% complete.  Test weights have dropped slightly and now being reported from 55 to 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields ranging from low teens to mid-20’s.  Proteins reported making from 13% to 16%.

South Central

Apache- Wheat harvest is just getting a good start in this region as producers have been fighting mud from the heavy rains that they received last week.  Test weights have been ranging from 57 pounds to 58 pounds per bushel for the most part.  On the intensive management wheat, they are seeing some 60-pound test weights.   Yields for the most part are ranging from 10 to 35 bushels per acre depending on location, management and variety.  This region 25% harvested.

Western Oklahoma

Sentinel/Rocky- Harvest has made great progress over the weekend and is reported at 80% complete.   Test weights reported in the 56 to 60 pound per bushel range. Yields being reported from 14 to 28 bushels per acre.  Proteins ranging from 13% to 17% depending on variety and management practices.

Central Oklahoma

El Reno- Harvest has been rolling North of El Reno, but South of El Reno, it is still be reported at a standstill as producers are fighting with mud from the heavy rains last week. They are reporting 20% harvested in this region. Yields are being reported from the low 20’s to the low 40’s depending on variety and management.  Test weights ranging from 57 to 59.5 pounds per bushel.  Protein ranging from 11% to 14.5%.

Kingfisher/OmegaHarvest in this region reported to be 60% complete. Test weights have dropped with ranges reported from 57 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Yields averaging in the high 20’s to low 30’s. Proteins have ranged from 10% to 15%, seeing a lot in the 11.5% to 12.5% range.

Reeding- Harvest in this region reported 25% complete. Test weights have dropped with ranges from 57 to 59 pounds per bushel being reported. Yields averaging mid-teens to low 30’s depending on variety and management. Proteins ranging from 11% to 12%.

Loyal- Harvest in this region reported at 20% complete.  Test weights averaging 57 to 59 pounds per bushel.  Yields on early harvested wheat making in the low 20’s to low 40’s.  Protein is ranging from 11.5% to 12.5% on early samples.

Northwest OK

Shattuck/Fort Supply-This region being reported at 15% complete. Test weights ranging from 57 to 62 pounds per bushel depending on variety and management.  Yields ranging from 5 bushels to 25 bushels per acre.  Proteins are ranging from 12% to 14%.

Burlington- Harvest in this region reported at 20% complete. A large area in this region will not be harvested due to the severe drought.  On the crop that will be harvested, test weights for this region is averaging 58 pounds per bushel.  Yields making in the mid 20’s to mid-40’s on the wheat that will be harvested depending on where moisture was received in a timely manner and management practices.  Proteins ranging from 12% to 13%.

Helena/Goltry- Harvest in this region has been moving full speed ahead, this region being reported as 50% harvested.  Yields reported from the mid-teens to low 30’s for the most part.  Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Proteins are averaging 13%.

Northern Oklahoma

Pond Creek/Lamont- Producers got a good start over the weekend in this region. This area reported to be 10% complete.  Test weights ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel. Yields being reported in the low 30’s to mid-40’s. Proteins ranging from 12% to 16%.

Medford/Deer Creek- Producers in this region are just getting started, as more moisture was received in this area last week.  Test weights on early cuttings ranging from 58 to 60 pounds per bushel.  Yields in this region have been reported to be making better because of timely rains.  The yields are ranging from low 30’s to mid-40’s.   Some reports on management intensive wheat to be making in the high 60’s. Proteins have been ranging from 11% to 16%.

Panhandle- At the time of this report, no harvest was reported as taking place in the Panhandle although we have heard early reports of harvest starting around Baker, Oklahoma.  We plan to have a more in-depth report in this region on Wednesday, June 15th.

Below see the Heat Maximum and Air Temperatures for Monday June 13th. Also please see the 7-day forecast provided by the Oklahoma Mesonet.  The next harvest report will be scheduled for Wednesday, June 15, 2022.

Pre-harvest sprouting damage in wheat

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

Pre-harvest sprouting is the onset of grain germination while still on the wheat head. Once wheat reaches physiological maturity, it can initiate germination if exposed to ideal moisture and warm temperatures for a few days. This is the case in some areas of Oklahoma that have received rainfall for several days after wheat has ripened. Genetics and environmental conditions are responsible for the differences in susceptibility to sprouting. Thus, wheat varieties differ in their resistance to sprouting (i.e., some are more prone to sprouting than others).

The occurrence of pre-harvest sprouting damage in the state has been low to moderate so far. But, due to the number of questions/calls I have received with the same concern in the past days, I thought I would share a few thoughts.

Can I use sprout-damaged wheat for seed?

It depends on several factors, but more importantly, is the level of sprout damage that has occurred. Grains that are swollen and with split seed coat, without visible root or shoot emerging from the seed, might still be viable to be used as seed. In this case, a germination test is warranted after harvest and before planting. Suppose the grain shows broken seed coat with visible roots and/or coleoptile. In that case, it should not be kept for seed because they will likely have reduced viability or not be viable at all (Picture 1).

Picture 1. Pre-harvest sprouted wheat damage, showing grain with split seed coat and radicle starting to become visible. The photo was taken on June 10, 2022, by Glen Calvert, the Extension Ag Educator at Washita County.

Will pre-harvest sprouting damage affect quality?

The extent to which pre-harvest sprouting grain will affect quality depends on the level of damage. Grain germination causes the production of alpha amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starch. As the level of sprout damage increases, this enzyme also increases, leading to an impairment of grain quality. Sprouted damaged grain can negatively impact wheat flour and baking quality by affecting mixability, crumb strength, loaf volume, etc.

Resources:

Contact your local county Extension office.

Storage and Use of Low Test Weight and Sprouted Wheat –  Factsheet BAE-1109

Acknowledgments:

Gary Strickland, Jackson County Extension Director and SWREC Regional Agronomy Specialist

Glen Calvert , Extension Educator Ag/4H at Washita County

Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Moves Forward with Abrupt Halt After Untimely Rains

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest made great strides in South Central and Southwest, Oklahoma over the Memorial Day weekend with producers getting started in regions as far north as Omega and Hennessey with some minor cutting being reported by Seiling.  Moisture has been challenging for producers in Central Oklahoma and variety selections made a difference on whether producers were able to get into the fields or not this past week in central Oklahoma. Rains have now delayed harvest from moving forward in all regions of Oklahoma that began on Tuesday evening.  Reports from across the state have been fairly consistent on yields being reported mainly in the mid teens to mid 20’s, across most Southern and Western regions.  The occasional yield of 30 to 40 bushels have been reported on non-grazed management intensive ground.  We have had one or two reports of some fields making 51 to 52 bushels per acre.  It is thought yields will be better as harvest moves further North and reports have trended higher on yields in Central, Oklahoma around the El Reno, Okarche, Kingfisher, Omega areas. Yields in these regions are mainly being reported in the mid 20’s to mid 30’s depending on the variety and management practices. Producers have made great strides down around Grandfield, Tipton, Altus, Fredrick, Walters with approximately half of the crop being reported as harvested.  Harvest is just beginning in the Chickasha and Apache regions with producers getting good starts.  Heavy rains in several areas of Southwest Oklahoma from Hollis, Tipton, Altus to Frederick last night will most likely have an impact on quality from here on out.  South of Altus it was reported that they received 3 inches at the OSU research station and East of Altus some areas received 6 inches of moisture in less than an hour.  Flash flooding happened in several places from Hollis, Tipton and Altus to Frederick. It was reported that a rail line was washed out in Headrick early this morning.  Several places have been without power in this region as of this morning, due to high winds that knocked down power lines.  While yields have been below average the quality of the crop up to this point has been extremely favorable.  All the data on quality was taken before the late Tuesday evening /early Wednesday morning rains, so producers are concerned what things will look like once they get back into the fields.  

Grandfield- Harvest is reported as 50% complete in this region.  Test weights before the rain have been 60 pounds per bushel or higher. Yields making from the mid teens to mid 20’s depending on variety and management. Protein reported from 11.5% to 12%, with some higher proteins reported between 14% and 17%

Devol- Harvest in this region reported at 45% complete. Test weights before the rain making 59 pounds per bushel or higher. (Average is still probably 60+ for this region before the rain.)  Yields being reported in the mid teens to low 20’s.  Some yields reported as low as 6 bushels per acre.  Protein ranging from 11.5% to 12%.

Chattanooga  Harvest in this region reported at 45% complete.  Test weights reported at 60 pounds per bushel or higher with yields in the mid teens to low 20’s for the most part.  Proteins ranging from 11.5% to 12%.

Frederick- Harvest in this region is 50% complete. Test weights ranging from 59 to 62 pounds/bushel.  Proteins ranging from 10 to 13.5% range. Yields being reported from low teens to one coming in at 38 bushels per acre.

Granite/Lone Wolf/Altus/Duke- Harvest in these regions is reported at 40% to 50% complete depending on location.  Test weights in this region before the rains ranging from 59 to 61 pounds per bushel.  (More falling in the 60+ range).  Yields being reported from 7 bushels per acre to the mid 20’s depending on location. We did have a few yields making in the high twenties to mid 30’s but those reports were minimal.  Proteins ranging from 12% to 17%.  Proteins in the 14 to 15% range not uncommon in these Western corridors.

Apache- Wheat harvest was just getting started in this region at the time of this report on Tuesday afternoon.  Only a couple loads of wheat had been taken in.  No yields, protein and test weights were reported as it would not be a good representation of the area at this point in time.

Sentinel/Rocky- Test weights reported in the 59 to 61 pound per bushel range.  (Samples before the rains were more in the 60+ range.)  Producers did get rolling good in this region over the Memorial Day weekend, the crop has been reported as clean with not much dockage.  Yields being reported from 14 to 25 bushels per acre.  Proteins ranging from 11.5% to 15% depending on variety and management practices.

OkarcheOver the weekend and up until yesterday, producers were just getting a good start in this region.  Grain was being taken in South, West, East and North of Okarche.  Test weights have been reported as decent with most being 60 pounds per bushel or higher.  Yields have been reported from as low at 10 bushels per acre to some making in the mid 40’s depending on management and variety.  It is thought in  the region, most will be looking at averages in the mid 20 to high 20 range.  Proteins being reported from 11.5% to 12%.

Kingfisher/Omega-Test weights on the wheat from this area reported at 60 pounds per bushel or higher.  Yields ranging from the mid 20’s to the mid 30’s.  A couple reports of fields with intensive management making in the mid 40’s to as high as 50. Protein ranged from 11.5% to 12.5%

Hennessey- Wheat harvest was just getting started in this region at the time of this report on Tuesday afternoon.  No yields, protein and test weights were reported as it would not be a good representation of the area at the time of the report.

Seiling-Wheat harvest was just getting started in this region at the time of this report on Tuesday afternoon.  No yields, protein and test weights were reported as it would not be a good representation of the area at the time of the report.

Below see actual rainfall accumulations for the past 24 hours. (Please keep in mind some of the numbers reported in actual report are higher than what Mesonet is showing based on conversations with agricultural producers in the region).  Also please see the forecast for tomorrow along with the 7-day forecast provided by the Oklahoma Mesonet.  The next harvest report will be scheduled for Monday, June 6, 2022, please keep in mind predicted weather is showing rains across the state over the weekend so the report might not have much change if producers do not get back into the fields before that time.  

Wheat Disease Update – 21 April 2022

This article was written by Meriem Aoun, Small Grains Pathologist

In my previous update on April 12, I reported barley yellow dwarf virus (BYD) infection on the susceptible wheat variety ‘Pete’ in the BYD nursery in the Stillwater Agronomy Research Station. Last week, Dr. Amanda De Oliveira Silva (OSU Extension small grains specialist) observed yellowing of the leaf tips in most of the hard red winter wheat variety demonstration plots in Stillwater (Figure 1). We performed Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on symptomatic samples from different OSU wheat varieties including ‘OK Corral’, ‘Strad CL Plus’, ‘Guardian’, ‘Baker’s Ann’, ‘Showdown’, and ‘Breakthrough’. All samples were tested positive for BYD. In these demonstration plots, the variety ‘Uncharted’, which carries two BYD resistance genes, Bdv1 and Bdv2, was the most resistant OSU wheat variety to BYD (Figure 1). Dr. Silva indicated that the plots planted earlier in September were more infected than the plots planted later in October. This shows the importance of breaking the ‘green bridge’ to manage this virus which is transmitted by cereal aphids.

Figure 1. The photo on the left shows Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) infection on the wheat variety OK Corral. The photo on the right shows the BYD resistant variety Uncharted which was planted next to other infected plots. The photos were taken in the hard red winter wheat variety demonstration plots in Stillwater, OK on April, 15, 2022.

During the last couple of weeks, the Plant Disease and Insect Diagnostic Laboratory at OSU received wheat samples from Garfield, Blaine, Cleveland, and Harper counties in Oklahoma and from an unknown location in Kansas state. I examined these samples and I observed yellowing and streaking indicative of viral infection (Figure 2). I did not observe any symptoms of fungal diseases on the leaves of the received samples. For the samples received from Garfield county and Kansas state, many of the leaves were dry and brown suggesting freeze damage (Figure 3).

Some of these samples were tested using ELISA for several viruses that affect wheat in the Great Plains. The sample from Cleveland county which was collected on the wheat variety OK Corral was positive for BYD. The sample from Kansas state (from the variety ‘Zenda’) and the sample from Garfield county (from the variety ‘WB 4401’) were tested positive for wheat streak mosaic virus (WSM). ELISA for the remaining samples from Blaine and Harper counties is in progress but the symptoms suggest WSM infection.

Figure 2. Symptoms of wheat streak mosaic virus on the leaves of the wheat variety ‘WB 4401’ (Garfield county, Oklahoma on April 13, 2022).
Figure 3. Freeze damage on the wheat variety ‘WB 4401’ (Garfield county, Oklahoma, photo by Kevin Brown on April 11, 2022).

Wheat Disease Update – 12 April 2022

This article was written by Dr. Meriem Aoun, Small Grains Pathologist

During the first and second week of April, some wheat diseases appeared in Oklahoma. For example, in the Stillwater Agronomy Research Station, I observed high powdery mildew infection on the susceptible wheat variety ‘OK Bullet’ (Figure 1). Similarly, Bradley Secraw (Extension educator at Cleveland county; March, 31, 2022) found little powdery mildew infection on the variety ‘OK Corral’ which is moderately resistant to this disease. In Stillwater and on April 11th, I observed initial stripe rust infection on OK Bullet (Figure 2). Also recall in my previous update of 25-March, I indicated seeing little stripe rust infection in Jackson county. Therefore, I encourage growers to start scouting their fields for these diseases, especially if they are growing susceptible varieties. We will continue to monitor these diseases as we approach flag leaf stage and provide recommendations.

Figure 1. Powdery mildew infection on the susceptible wheat variety ‘OK Bullet’ in Stillwater, OK (April, 11, 2022)

In the Stillwater Agronomy Research Station, I also observed barley yellow dwarf virus (BYD) symptoms on the susceptible wheat variety ‘Pete’. The symptoms appeared as yellow, red/purple discoloration on the leaves as shown in Figure 2. This virus is transmitted from plant to plant by cereal aphids. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on a symptomatic sample from Pete was positive for two BYD strains; BYD strain 2 (BYDV-PAV) and cereal yellow dwarf (CYDV-RPV).

Figure 2. Barley yellow dwarf virus symptoms on the susceptible variety ‘Pete’ in Stillwater, OK (April, 5, 2022).

In Stillwater, I observed yellowing on the wheat variety ‘Lonerider’. Older leaves were completely chlorotic (Figure 3). Laboratory diagnosis of a sample using ELISA was positive for wheat streak mosaic virus (WSM) which is transmitted by wheat curl mite. This disease is an issue in our region as many wheat varieties growing in Oklahoma are susceptible to WSM.

Figure 3. Symptoms of wheat streak mosaic virus on the susceptible wheat variety ‘Lonerider’ in Stillwater, OK (April, 5, 2022).

Wheat Disease Update – 25 March 2022

This article was written by Meriem Aoun, Small Grains Pathologist

Based on my observations in Stillwater wheat fields and communications with multiple county educators in Oklahoma, it is relatively quiet in terms of diseases. In southwestern Texas and during the first week of March, Dr. Amir Ibrahim (Regents Professor & Small Grains Breeder/Geneticist; Texas A&M AgriLife Research) and Dr. Bryan Simoneaux (Research Associate, Texas A&M AgriLife Research) reported infections of stripe rust and leaf rust in naturally infected rust nurseries.

In Castroville, TX (29.3558° N, 98.8786° W) nursery, Drs. Ibrahim and Simoneaux observed a little bit of leaf rust in the lower canopy of the hard red winter wheat variety ‘Jagalene’. In the Uvalde, TX (29.2097° N, 99.7862° W) nursery, they observed some leaf rust on the lower canopy of the hard red winter wheat varieties Jagalene and ‘TAM 110’, however leaf rust infection did not spread uniformly throughout the nursery. They also found good stripe rust infection on Jagalene in Uvalde, TX (Figure 1 & 2).

Figure 1. Leaf rust and stripe rust infections on the same leaf of the susceptible wheat variety Jagalene at Uvalde, TX (Photo by Dr. Bryan Simoneaux on 3 March 2022).
Figure 2. Stripe rust infections on the susceptible wheat variety Jagalene at Uvalde, TX (Photo by Dr. Bryan Simoneaux, on 3 March 2022).

In southwestern Oklahoma and during the first week of March, Gary Strickland (Jackson County Extn Educator) reported seeing only very little tan spot on bottom leaves but nothing major (in terms of percentage infestation). He also noted a few leaves infected with stripe rust. Gary Strickland mentioned that the major issue he observed was winter grain mites.

In the Stillwater Agronomy Research Station and on 24 March 2022, I am starting to observe symptoms of the wheat soil-borne mosaic (SB)/wheat spindle streak mosaic (SS) virus complex on the susceptible hard red winter wheat variety ‘Vona’ in the SB-SS nursery (Figure 3). However, due to the use of resistant varieties, these viral diseases are not a problem in Oklahoma and the central plains.

Figure 3. Symptoms of wheat soil-borne mosaic/wheat spindle streak mosaic virus complex on the susceptible wheat variety Vona in Stillwater, OK

First Hollow Stem Update – 3/22/2022

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8”, or the diameter of a dime) of hollow stem below the developing grain head (see full explanation). The latest FHS results from OSU forage trials in Stillwater (Table 1) and Chickasha (Table 2) are listed below. For an additional resource, see the Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor.

We use an accelerated growth system to report the earliest onset of FHS stage. Trials are seeded early to simulate a grazed system, but the forage is not removed. Varieties reported here with the earliest FHS date should be the first to monitor in commercial fields. In practice, wheat that is grazed will likely reach FHS stage later than reported here, and differences between varieties will likely moderate.

Values can fluctuate from one sampling to another due to environmental variation associated with, among other factors, the winter storm on February 2-4. Additionally, varieties differed widely in their FHS response following this cold period.

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/27/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/28/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Additional resources available:

Acknowledgements

Tyler Lynch, Senior Agriculturalist

Israel Molina Cyrineu, Graduate Research Assistant

Cassidy Stowers, Undergraduate student

Ephraim Muyombo, Undergraduate student

Lettie Crabtree, Undergraduate student

Teresa Swantek, Undergraduate student

First Hollow Stem Update – 3/18/2022

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8”, or the diameter of a dime) of hollow stem below the developing grain head (see full explanation). The latest FHS results from OSU forage trials in Stillwater (Table 1) and Chickasha (Table 2) are listed below. For an additional resource, see the Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor.

We use an accelerated growth system to report the earliest onset of FHS stage. Trials are seeded early to simulate a grazed system, but the forage is not removed. Varieties reported here with the earliest FHS date should be the first to monitor in commercial fields. In practice, wheat that is grazed will likely reach FHS stage later than reported here, and differences between varieties will likely moderate.

Values can fluctuate from one sampling to another due to environmental variation associated with, among other factors, the winter storm on February 2-4. Additionally, varieties differed widely in their FHS response following this cold period.

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/27/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/28/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Additional resources available:

Acknowledgements

Tyler Lynch, Senior Agriculturalist

Israel Molina Cyrineu, Graduate Research Assistant

Cassidy Stowers, Undergraduate student

Ephraim Muyombo, Undergraduate student

Lettie Crabtree, Undergraduate student

Teresa Swantek, Undergraduate student

First Hollow Stem Update – 3/15/2022

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8”, or the diameter of a dime) of hollow stem below the developing grain head (see full explanation). The latest FHS results from OSU forage trials in Stillwater (Table 1) and Chickasha (Table 2) are listed below. For an additional resource, see the Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor.

We use an accelerated growth system to report the earliest onset of FHS stage. Trials are seeded early to simulate a grazed system, but the forage is not removed. Varieties reported here with the earliest FHS date should be the first to monitor in commercial fields. In practice, wheat that is grazed will likely reach FHS stage later than reported here, and differences between varieties will likely moderate.

Values can fluctuate from one sampling to another due to environmental variation associated with, among other factors, the winter storm on February 2-4. Additionally, varieties differed widely in their FHS response following this cold period.

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/27/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/28/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Additional resources available:

Acknowledgements:

Tyler Lynch, Senior Agriculturalist

Israel Molina Cyrineu, Graduate Research Assistant

Cassidy Stowers, Undergraduate student

Ephraim Muyombo, Undergraduate student

Lettie Crabtree, Undergraduate student

Teresa Swantek, Undergraduate student