Oklahoma Wheat Harvest Moves Forward with Abrupt Halt After Untimely Rains

Courtesy Oklahoma Wheat Commission

Oklahoma Wheat harvest made great strides in South Central and Southwest, Oklahoma over the Memorial Day weekend with producers getting started in regions as far north as Omega and Hennessey with some minor cutting being reported by Seiling.  Moisture has been challenging for producers in Central Oklahoma and variety selections made a difference on whether producers were able to get into the fields or not this past week in central Oklahoma. Rains have now delayed harvest from moving forward in all regions of Oklahoma that began on Tuesday evening.  Reports from across the state have been fairly consistent on yields being reported mainly in the mid teens to mid 20’s, across most Southern and Western regions.  The occasional yield of 30 to 40 bushels have been reported on non-grazed management intensive ground.  We have had one or two reports of some fields making 51 to 52 bushels per acre.  It is thought yields will be better as harvest moves further North and reports have trended higher on yields in Central, Oklahoma around the El Reno, Okarche, Kingfisher, Omega areas. Yields in these regions are mainly being reported in the mid 20’s to mid 30’s depending on the variety and management practices. Producers have made great strides down around Grandfield, Tipton, Altus, Fredrick, Walters with approximately half of the crop being reported as harvested.  Harvest is just beginning in the Chickasha and Apache regions with producers getting good starts.  Heavy rains in several areas of Southwest Oklahoma from Hollis, Tipton, Altus to Frederick last night will most likely have an impact on quality from here on out.  South of Altus it was reported that they received 3 inches at the OSU research station and East of Altus some areas received 6 inches of moisture in less than an hour.  Flash flooding happened in several places from Hollis, Tipton and Altus to Frederick. It was reported that a rail line was washed out in Headrick early this morning.  Several places have been without power in this region as of this morning, due to high winds that knocked down power lines.  While yields have been below average the quality of the crop up to this point has been extremely favorable.  All the data on quality was taken before the late Tuesday evening /early Wednesday morning rains, so producers are concerned what things will look like once they get back into the fields.  

Grandfield- Harvest is reported as 50% complete in this region.  Test weights before the rain have been 60 pounds per bushel or higher. Yields making from the mid teens to mid 20’s depending on variety and management. Protein reported from 11.5% to 12%, with some higher proteins reported between 14% and 17%

Devol- Harvest in this region reported at 45% complete. Test weights before the rain making 59 pounds per bushel or higher. (Average is still probably 60+ for this region before the rain.)  Yields being reported in the mid teens to low 20’s.  Some yields reported as low as 6 bushels per acre.  Protein ranging from 11.5% to 12%.

Chattanooga  Harvest in this region reported at 45% complete.  Test weights reported at 60 pounds per bushel or higher with yields in the mid teens to low 20’s for the most part.  Proteins ranging from 11.5% to 12%.

Frederick- Harvest in this region is 50% complete. Test weights ranging from 59 to 62 pounds/bushel.  Proteins ranging from 10 to 13.5% range. Yields being reported from low teens to one coming in at 38 bushels per acre.

Granite/Lone Wolf/Altus/Duke- Harvest in these regions is reported at 40% to 50% complete depending on location.  Test weights in this region before the rains ranging from 59 to 61 pounds per bushel.  (More falling in the 60+ range).  Yields being reported from 7 bushels per acre to the mid 20’s depending on location. We did have a few yields making in the high twenties to mid 30’s but those reports were minimal.  Proteins ranging from 12% to 17%.  Proteins in the 14 to 15% range not uncommon in these Western corridors.

Apache- Wheat harvest was just getting started in this region at the time of this report on Tuesday afternoon.  Only a couple loads of wheat had been taken in.  No yields, protein and test weights were reported as it would not be a good representation of the area at this point in time.

Sentinel/Rocky- Test weights reported in the 59 to 61 pound per bushel range.  (Samples before the rains were more in the 60+ range.)  Producers did get rolling good in this region over the Memorial Day weekend, the crop has been reported as clean with not much dockage.  Yields being reported from 14 to 25 bushels per acre.  Proteins ranging from 11.5% to 15% depending on variety and management practices.

OkarcheOver the weekend and up until yesterday, producers were just getting a good start in this region.  Grain was being taken in South, West, East and North of Okarche.  Test weights have been reported as decent with most being 60 pounds per bushel or higher.  Yields have been reported from as low at 10 bushels per acre to some making in the mid 40’s depending on management and variety.  It is thought in  the region, most will be looking at averages in the mid 20 to high 20 range.  Proteins being reported from 11.5% to 12%.

Kingfisher/Omega-Test weights on the wheat from this area reported at 60 pounds per bushel or higher.  Yields ranging from the mid 20’s to the mid 30’s.  A couple reports of fields with intensive management making in the mid 40’s to as high as 50. Protein ranged from 11.5% to 12.5%

Hennessey- Wheat harvest was just getting started in this region at the time of this report on Tuesday afternoon.  No yields, protein and test weights were reported as it would not be a good representation of the area at the time of the report.

Seiling-Wheat harvest was just getting started in this region at the time of this report on Tuesday afternoon.  No yields, protein and test weights were reported as it would not be a good representation of the area at the time of the report.

Below see actual rainfall accumulations for the past 24 hours. (Please keep in mind some of the numbers reported in actual report are higher than what Mesonet is showing based on conversations with agricultural producers in the region).  Also please see the forecast for tomorrow along with the 7-day forecast provided by the Oklahoma Mesonet.  The next harvest report will be scheduled for Monday, June 6, 2022, please keep in mind predicted weather is showing rains across the state over the weekend so the report might not have much change if producers do not get back into the fields before that time.  

Wheat Disease Update – 12 May 2022

This article was written by Meriem Aoun, Small Grains Pathologist

Root/crown/foot rots were observed in multiple wheat fields in April and May in Woods, Cherokee, Blaine, Cotton, and Payne counties. Dr. Amanda Silva reported severely damaged wheat plants in drought stressed fields mainly in Cherokee and Woods counties (Figure 1). Infected plants were stunted and white and had poor root systems. Although the plants were drought stressed throughout the growing season, much of the damage was not noticeable until after wheat heading. Dr. Silva observed pinkish discoloration on infected plants in Cherokee after peeling the leaf sheath in the lower stem internodes, which indicates that the infection was caused by Fusarium (Figure 2).

Figure 1. White, stunted, and drought-stressed plants showing symptoms of root/crown/foot rots (Cherokee county, Oklahoma; photo credit: Dr. Amanda Silva; May 12, 2022).
Figure 2. Pink discoloration indicates that root/crown/foot rot was caused by Fusarium (Cherokee county, Oklahoma; photo credit: Dr. Amanda Silva; May 12, 2022).

The rain in early May in some locations in Oklahoma provided suitable environmental conditions for the appearance of some fungal diseases including rusts. This week, stripe rust was observed in the Stillwater Agronomy Research Station on susceptible wheat varieties like ‘Pete’ and some OSU breeding lines (Figure 3). Leaf rust was found on the susceptible wheat variety ‘OK Bullet” and on some OSU breeding lines (Figure 4). Rust diseases have not been found in other locations in Oklahoma. The current pressure is low and late compared to the previous year due to drought conditions through the growing season. However, rust disease incidence can increase in coming weeks if weather conditions are favorable.

Figure 3. Stripe rust on a susceptible OSU winter wheat breeding line in the Stillwater Agronomy Research Station, Oklahoma (the photo was taken on May 10, 2022).
Figure 4. Initial leaf rust pathogen infection on a winter wheat OSU breeding line in the Stillwater Agronomy Research Station, Oklahoma (the photo was taken on May 10, 2022).

Wheat Disease Update – 12 April 2022

This article was written by Dr. Meriem Aoun, Small Grains Pathologist

During the first and second week of April, some wheat diseases appeared in Oklahoma. For example, in the Stillwater Agronomy Research Station, I observed high powdery mildew infection on the susceptible wheat variety ‘OK Bullet’ (Figure 1). Similarly, Bradley Secraw (Extension educator at Cleveland county; March, 31, 2022) found little powdery mildew infection on the variety ‘OK Corral’ which is moderately resistant to this disease. In Stillwater and on April 11th, I observed initial stripe rust infection on OK Bullet (Figure 2). Also recall in my previous update of 25-March, I indicated seeing little stripe rust infection in Jackson county. Therefore, I encourage growers to start scouting their fields for these diseases, especially if they are growing susceptible varieties. We will continue to monitor these diseases as we approach flag leaf stage and provide recommendations.

Figure 1. Powdery mildew infection on the susceptible wheat variety ‘OK Bullet’ in Stillwater, OK (April, 11, 2022)

In the Stillwater Agronomy Research Station, I also observed barley yellow dwarf virus (BYD) symptoms on the susceptible wheat variety ‘Pete’. The symptoms appeared as yellow, red/purple discoloration on the leaves as shown in Figure 2. This virus is transmitted from plant to plant by cereal aphids. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on a symptomatic sample from Pete was positive for two BYD strains; BYD strain 2 (BYDV-PAV) and cereal yellow dwarf (CYDV-RPV).

Figure 2. Barley yellow dwarf virus symptoms on the susceptible variety ‘Pete’ in Stillwater, OK (April, 5, 2022).

In Stillwater, I observed yellowing on the wheat variety ‘Lonerider’. Older leaves were completely chlorotic (Figure 3). Laboratory diagnosis of a sample using ELISA was positive for wheat streak mosaic virus (WSM) which is transmitted by wheat curl mite. This disease is an issue in our region as many wheat varieties growing in Oklahoma are susceptible to WSM.

Figure 3. Symptoms of wheat streak mosaic virus on the susceptible wheat variety ‘Lonerider’ in Stillwater, OK (April, 5, 2022).

Wheat Disease Update – 25 March 2022

This article was written by Meriem Aoun, Small Grains Pathologist

Based on my observations in Stillwater wheat fields and communications with multiple county educators in Oklahoma, it is relatively quiet in terms of diseases. In southwestern Texas and during the first week of March, Dr. Amir Ibrahim (Regents Professor & Small Grains Breeder/Geneticist; Texas A&M AgriLife Research) and Dr. Bryan Simoneaux (Research Associate, Texas A&M AgriLife Research) reported infections of stripe rust and leaf rust in naturally infected rust nurseries.

In Castroville, TX (29.3558° N, 98.8786° W) nursery, Drs. Ibrahim and Simoneaux observed a little bit of leaf rust in the lower canopy of the hard red winter wheat variety ‘Jagalene’. In the Uvalde, TX (29.2097° N, 99.7862° W) nursery, they observed some leaf rust on the lower canopy of the hard red winter wheat varieties Jagalene and ‘TAM 110’, however leaf rust infection did not spread uniformly throughout the nursery. They also found good stripe rust infection on Jagalene in Uvalde, TX (Figure 1 & 2).

Figure 1. Leaf rust and stripe rust infections on the same leaf of the susceptible wheat variety Jagalene at Uvalde, TX (Photo by Dr. Bryan Simoneaux on 3 March 2022).
Figure 2. Stripe rust infections on the susceptible wheat variety Jagalene at Uvalde, TX (Photo by Dr. Bryan Simoneaux, on 3 March 2022).

In southwestern Oklahoma and during the first week of March, Gary Strickland (Jackson County Extn Educator) reported seeing only very little tan spot on bottom leaves but nothing major (in terms of percentage infestation). He also noted a few leaves infected with stripe rust. Gary Strickland mentioned that the major issue he observed was winter grain mites.

In the Stillwater Agronomy Research Station and on 24 March 2022, I am starting to observe symptoms of the wheat soil-borne mosaic (SB)/wheat spindle streak mosaic (SS) virus complex on the susceptible hard red winter wheat variety ‘Vona’ in the SB-SS nursery (Figure 3). However, due to the use of resistant varieties, these viral diseases are not a problem in Oklahoma and the central plains.

Figure 3. Symptoms of wheat soil-borne mosaic/wheat spindle streak mosaic virus complex on the susceptible wheat variety Vona in Stillwater, OK

First Hollow Stem Update – 3/22/2022

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8”, or the diameter of a dime) of hollow stem below the developing grain head (see full explanation). The latest FHS results from OSU forage trials in Stillwater (Table 1) and Chickasha (Table 2) are listed below. For an additional resource, see the Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor.

We use an accelerated growth system to report the earliest onset of FHS stage. Trials are seeded early to simulate a grazed system, but the forage is not removed. Varieties reported here with the earliest FHS date should be the first to monitor in commercial fields. In practice, wheat that is grazed will likely reach FHS stage later than reported here, and differences between varieties will likely moderate.

Values can fluctuate from one sampling to another due to environmental variation associated with, among other factors, the winter storm on February 2-4. Additionally, varieties differed widely in their FHS response following this cold period.

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/27/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/28/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Additional resources available:

Acknowledgements

Tyler Lynch, Senior Agriculturalist

Israel Molina Cyrineu, Graduate Research Assistant

Cassidy Stowers, Undergraduate student

Ephraim Muyombo, Undergraduate student

Lettie Crabtree, Undergraduate student

Teresa Swantek, Undergraduate student

First Hollow Stem Update – 3/18/2022

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8”, or the diameter of a dime) of hollow stem below the developing grain head (see full explanation). The latest FHS results from OSU forage trials in Stillwater (Table 1) and Chickasha (Table 2) are listed below. For an additional resource, see the Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor.

We use an accelerated growth system to report the earliest onset of FHS stage. Trials are seeded early to simulate a grazed system, but the forage is not removed. Varieties reported here with the earliest FHS date should be the first to monitor in commercial fields. In practice, wheat that is grazed will likely reach FHS stage later than reported here, and differences between varieties will likely moderate.

Values can fluctuate from one sampling to another due to environmental variation associated with, among other factors, the winter storm on February 2-4. Additionally, varieties differed widely in their FHS response following this cold period.

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/27/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/28/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Additional resources available:

Acknowledgements

Tyler Lynch, Senior Agriculturalist

Israel Molina Cyrineu, Graduate Research Assistant

Cassidy Stowers, Undergraduate student

Ephraim Muyombo, Undergraduate student

Lettie Crabtree, Undergraduate student

Teresa Swantek, Undergraduate student

First Hollow Stem Update – 3/15/2022

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8”, or the diameter of a dime) of hollow stem below the developing grain head (see full explanation). The latest FHS results from OSU forage trials in Stillwater (Table 1) and Chickasha (Table 2) are listed below. For an additional resource, see the Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor.

We use an accelerated growth system to report the earliest onset of FHS stage. Trials are seeded early to simulate a grazed system, but the forage is not removed. Varieties reported here with the earliest FHS date should be the first to monitor in commercial fields. In practice, wheat that is grazed will likely reach FHS stage later than reported here, and differences between varieties will likely moderate.

Values can fluctuate from one sampling to another due to environmental variation associated with, among other factors, the winter storm on February 2-4. Additionally, varieties differed widely in their FHS response following this cold period.

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/27/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/28/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Additional resources available:

Acknowledgements:

Tyler Lynch, Senior Agriculturalist

Israel Molina Cyrineu, Graduate Research Assistant

Cassidy Stowers, Undergraduate student

Ephraim Muyombo, Undergraduate student

Lettie Crabtree, Undergraduate student

Teresa Swantek, Undergraduate student

First Hollow Stem Update – 3/10/2022

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8”, or the diameter of a dime) of hollow stem below the developing grain head (see full explanation). The latest FHS results from OSU forage trials in Stillwater (Table 1) and Chickasha (Table 2) are listed below. For an additional resource, see the Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor.

We use an accelerated growth system to report the earliest onset of FHS stage. Trials are seeded early to simulate a grazed system, but the forage is not removed. Varieties reported here with the earliest FHS date should be the first to monitor in commercial fields. In practice, wheat that is grazed will likely reach FHS stage later than reported here, and differences between varieties will likely moderate.

Values can fluctuate from one sampling to another due to environmental variation associated with, among other factors, the winter storm on February 2-4. Additionally, varieties differed widely in their FHS response following this cold period.

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/27/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/28/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Additional resources available:

First Hollow Stem Update – 3/7/2022

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8”, or the diameter of a dime) of hollow stem below the developing grain head (see full explanation). The latest FHS results from OSU forage trials in Stillwater (Table 1) and Chickasha (Table 2) are listed below. For an additional resource, see the Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor.

We use an accelerated growth system to report the earliest onset of FHS stage. Trials are seeded early to simulate a grazed system, but the forage is not removed. Varieties reported here with the earliest FHS date should be the first to monitor in commercial fields. In practice, wheat that is grazed will likely reach FHS stage later than reported here, and differences between varieties will likely moderate.

Values can fluctuate from one sampling to another due to environmental variation associated with, among other factors, the winter storm on February 2-4. Additionally, varieties differed widely in their FHS response following this cold period.

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/27/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/28/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red. The overall average represents the mean FHS for the varieties measured within a date.

Additional resources available:

First Hollow Stem Update – 2/22/2022

Amanda de Oliveira Silva, Small Grains Extension Specialist

First hollow stem (FHS) is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. This occurs when there is 1.5 cm (5/8”, or the diameter of a dime) of hollow stem below the developing grain head (see full explanation). The latest FHS results from OSU forage trials in Stillwater (Table 1) and Chickasha (Table 2) are listed below. For an additional resource, see the Mesonet First Hollow Stem Advisor.

We use an accelerated growth system to report the earliest onset of FHS stage. Trials are seeded early to simulate a grazed system, but the forage is not removed. Varieties reported here with the earliest FHS date should be the first to monitor in commercial fields. In practice, wheat that is grazed will likely reach FHS stage later than reported here, and differences between varieties will likely moderate.

Values can fluctuate from one sampling to another due to environmental variation associated with, among other factors, the winter storm on February 2-4. Additionally, varieties differed widely in their FHS response following this cold period.

Table 1. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Stillwater. Plots were planted on 09/27/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red.

Table 2. First hollow stem (FHS) results for each variety collected at Chickasha. Plots were planted on 09/28/21 but not grazed or clipped. The threshold target for FHS is 1.5 cm (5/8″ or the diameter of a dime). The value of hollow stem for each variety represents the average of ten measurements. Varieties exceeding the threshold are highlighted in red.