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First hollow stem update 03/05/15

First hollow stem is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture (full explanation). To monitor first hollow stem, we measure hollow stem for the 56 lines in our September-sown wheat forage plots at Stillwater each year. In spite of the recent cold snap many varieties are progressing towards first hollow stem. The small grains extension crew split ten stems from lines tested in our program today and1863, LCS Mint, TAM 204, TAM 113, TAM 114, and Byrd join the list of varieties at or past first hollow stem. Full results are posted in the table below. Varieties with no value for first hollow stem reached first hollow stem on a previous measurement date.

We will take another set of measurements later this week and report the results on this blog. Given the warm forecast for the coming week, I predict that all varieties will be well past first hollow stem by next Friday. You can check progression of first hollow stem around the state by using the First Hollow Stem Advisor on the Oklahoma Mesonet site.

 

First hollow stem measured in wheat sown 09/16/2014 at Stillwater, OK. Varieties with a “-” reached first hollow stem on a previous measurement date
Variety cm of hollow stem 03/05/15
Endurance 0.2
Deliver 0.2
Pete 0.1
OK Rising 0.2
Billings 0.7
Ruby Lee 0.6
Garrison 0.5
Duster 0.5
Gallagher
Iba 0.5
Centerfield 0.2
Doublestop CL Plus 0.3
NF 101
Everest
1863 1.6
KanMark 1.1
Oakley CL 0.6
KS061406 1.0
Sy Llano
Sy Southwind 0.9
Greer 1.1
Jackpot
Sy Monument 0.1
06BC722#25 2.8
AP09T7631 1.1
WB-Cedar
WB-Redhawk
WB4458
WB-Grainfield 0.8
Winterhawk
T153
T154
T158 1.3
LCS Mint 1.5
LCS Wizard 0.7
LCS Pistol
LCH13DH-20-87 1.1
LCH13DH-14-91
TAM 112
TAM 204 1.6
TAM 113 1.6
TAM 114 1.9
CO11D174 1.1
Byrd 1.7
Brawl CL Plus
OK09125 0.8
OK1059060-2C14 1.4
OK10126
OK11D25056 0.9
OK11231
OK12621 0.8
OK13625
OK0986130-7C13
OK08P707W-19C13 1.3
OK10728W 1.5
OK11755W
Average 1.0

 

First hollow stem update 03/02/15

First hollow stem is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture (full explanation). To monitor first hollow stem, we measure hollow stem for the 56 lines in our September-sown wheat forage plots at Stillwater each year. In spite of the recent cold snap many varieties are progressing towards first hollow stem. The small grains extension crew split ten stems from lines tested in our program today and NF 101 and Brawl CL Plus join the list of varieties at or past first hollow stem. Full results are posted in the table below. We will take another set of measurements later this week and report the results on this blog.

The numbers reported from Stillwater are likely behind those being observed in southern Oklahoma and ahead of those observed in northern Oklahoma. You can check progression of first hollow stem around the state by using the First Hollow Stem Advisor on the Oklahoma Mesonet site.

 

First hollow stem measured in wheat sown 09/16/2014 at Stillwater, OK.
Variety cm of hollow stem 03/02/15
Endurance 0.5
Deliver 0.4
Pete 0.1
OK Rising 0.1
Billings 0.4
Ruby Lee 0.2
Garrison 0.1
Duster 0.4
Gallagher .
Iba 0.1
Centerfield 0.1
Doublestop CL Plus 0.1
NF 101 1.5
Everest .
1863 0.6
KanMark 0.4
Oakley CL 0.6
KS061406 0.7
Sy Llano .
Sy Southwind 0.2
Greer 0.8
Jackpot .
Sy Monument 0.4
06BC722#25 1.3
AP09T7631 0.4
WB-Cedar .
WB-Redhawk .
WB4458 .
WB-Grainfield 1.1
Winterhawk .
T153 .
T154 .
T158 0.5
LCS Mint 0.8
LCS Wizard 0.9
LCS Pistol .
LCH13DH-20-87 0.8
LCH13DH-14-91 .
TAM 112 .
TAM 204 1.4
TAM 113 1.2
TAM 114 1.4
CO11D174 0.9
Byrd 0.7
Brawl CL Plus 1.8
OK09125 0.5
OK1059060-2C14 0.7
OK10126 .
OK11D25056 0.7
OK11231 2.2
OK12621 0.9
OK13625 .
OK0986130-7C13 .
OK08P707W-19C13 1.2
OK10728W 1.0
OK11755W .
Average 0.7

 

First hollow stem update 02/26/15

First hollow stem is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture (full explanation). To monitor first hollow stem, we measure hollow stem for the 56 lines in our September-sown wheat forage plots at Stillwater each year. In spite of the recent cold snap many varieties are progressing towards first hollow stem. The small grains extension crew split ten stems from lines tested in our program today and Gallagher, Everest, Jackpot, Winterhawk, T153, T154, LCS Pistol, and TAM 112 join the list of varieties at or past first hollow stem. Full results are posted in the table below. We will take another set of measurements the first of next week and report the results on this blog.

The numbers reported from Stillwater are likely behind those being observed in southern Oklahoma and ahead of those observed in northern Oklahoma. You can check progression of first hollow stem around the state by using the First Hollow Stem Advisor on the Oklahoma Mesonet site.

First hollow stem measured in wheat sown 09/16/2014 at Stillwater, OK. Varieties in red are at or past first hollow stem.
Variety cm of hollow stem 02/26/15
Endurance 0.0
Deliver 0.6
Pete 0.0
OK Rising 0.1
Billings 0.5
Ruby Lee 0.4
Garrison 0.1
Duster 0.1
Gallagher 2.0
Iba 0.1
Centerfield 0.2
Doublestop CL Plus 0.0
NF 101 1.0
Everest 1.6
1863 0.7
KanMark 1.1
Oakley CL 1.0
KS061406 0.8
Sy Llano
Sy Southwind 0.6
Greer 0.8
Jackpot 1.9
Sy Monument 0.0
06BC722#25 0.8
AP09T7631 0.1
WB-Cedar
WB-Redhawk
WB4458 1.7
WB-Grainfield 1.0
Winterhawk 1.9
T153 1.5
T154 2.3
T158 0.1
LCS Mint 1.4
LCS Wizard 0.7
LCS Pistol 1.7
LCH13DH-20-87 0.8
LCH13DH-14-91
TAM 112 1.9
TAM 204 1.3
TAM 113 1.4
TAM 114 1.2
CO11D174 1.1
Byrd 0.7
Brawl CL Plus 0.9
OK09125 0.9
OK1059060-2C14 0.9
OK10126 2.3
OK11D25056 1.5
OK11231 1.4
OK12621 0.6
OK13625
OK0986130-7C13
OK08P707W-19C13 1.0
OK10728W 1.0
OK11755W 2.2
Average 1.0

 

 

First hollow stem update 02/19/15

First hollow stem is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture (full explanation). We measure first hollow in our September-sown wheat forage plots at Stillwater each year, and the warm temperatures have caused first hollow stem to advance ahead of schedule this year. The small grains extension crew split ten stems from each of the 56 lines tested in our program yesterday and Sy Llano, WB-Cedar, WB-Redhawk, and a few experimental lines were all at first hollow stem. Early varieties such as Gallagher, Greer, Everest, WB4458, TAM 114, and Brawl CL Plus are not far behind. A full listing of first hollow stem measurements are included in the table at the end of this blog. We will take another set of measurements the first of next week and report the results on this blog.

The numbers reported from Stillwater are likely behind those being observed in southern Oklahoma and ahead of those observed in northern Oklahoma. Jim Johnson with the Noble Foundation reported seeing quite a bit of first hollow stem in early varieties last week.

Probability of first hollow stem for early maturing wheat varieties as estimated on 02/19/15. Red areas indicate there is at least 50% likelihood that early-maturing wheat varieties have reached first hollow stem in the shaded area.

Probability of first hollow stem for early maturing wheat varieties as estimated on 02/19/15. Red areas indicate there is at least 50% likelihood that early-maturing wheat varieties have reached first hollow stem in the shaded area.

One week projection of first hollow stem for early-maturing wheat cultivars 02/19/15

One week projection of first hollow stem for early-maturing wheat cultivars 02/19/15

The First Hollow Stem Advisor on the Oklahoma Mesonet indicates that  early varieties in southern Oklahoma are likely past first hollow stem and that early varieties in central Oklahoma will reach this point within a week.

Keep in mind the one week projection uses historical weather conditions which are slightly above our current forecast. Cooler than normal conditions will not last long and wheat can grow anytime average daily temperature is above 32F. So, my advice is to move cattle off of wheat pasture in southern Oklahoma yesterday, start moving them off of wheat pasture in central Oklahoma today, and move cattle off wheat pasture in northern Oklahoma next week.

 

First hollow stem measured in wheat sown 09/16/2014 at Stillwater, OK. Varieties at or past first hollow stem (>1.5 cm of hollow stem) are shaded in red.
Variety cm of hollow stem 02/18/14
Endurance 0.1
Deliver 0.0
Pete 0.0
OK Rising 0.0
Billings 0.7
Ruby Lee 0.0
Garrison 0.1
Duster 0.1
Gallagher 1.2
Iba 0.2
Centerfield 0.0
Doublestop CL Plus 0.0
NF 101 0.9
Everest 1.3
1863 0.6
KanMark 0.5
Oakley CL 1.0
KS061406 0.4
Sy Llano 2.7
Sy Southwind 0.8
Greer 1.4
Jackpot 0.8
Sy Monument 0.0
06BC722#25 0.5
AP09T7631 0.7
WB-Cedar 1.5
WB-Redhawk 1.5
WB4458 1.3
WB-Grainfield 0.1
Winterhawk 0.8
T153 1.1
T154 0.6
T158 0.1
LCS Mint 0.7
LCS Wizard 0.4
LCS Pistol 0.8
LCH13DH-20-87 0.4
LCH13DH-14-91 1.8
TAM 112 0.9
TAM 204 1.0
TAM 113 0.7
TAM 114 1.3
CO11D174 0.5
Byrd 0.5
Brawl CL Plus 1.2
OK09125 0.9
OK1059060-2C14 0.4
OK10126 0.5
OK11D25056 0.2
OK11231 0.6
OK12621 0.7
OK13625 1.6
OK0986130-7C13 2.2
OK08P707W-19C13 0.9
OK10728W 1.0
OK11755W 1.2
Average 0.7

 

 

Checking for first hollow stem

First hollow stem occurs just prior to jointing and is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture. First hollow stem usually occurs in mid to late February in southern Oklahoma and early March in northern Oklahoma. Grazing past first hollow stem can reduce wheat grain yield by as much as 5% per day and the added cattle gains are not enough to offset the value of the reduced wheat yield.

Similar to previous years, we will monitor occurrence of first hollow stem in our wheat plots at Stillwater and report the findings on this blog. There is also a new first hollow stem advisor available on the Oklahoma Mesonet that can assist in determining when to start scouting.

Checking for first hollow stem is fairly easy.

  • You must check first hollow stem in a nongrazed area of the same variety and planting date. Variety can affect date of first hollow stem by as much as three weeks and planting date can affect it even more.
  • Dig or pull up a few plants and split the largest tiller longitudinally (lengthways) and measure the amount of hollow stem present below the developing grain head. You must dig plants because at this stage the developing grain head may still be below the soil surface.
  • If there is 1.5 cm of hollow stem present (see picture below), it is time to remove cattle. 1.5 cm is about the same as the diameter of a dime.
  • Detailed information on first hollow stem can be found at www.wheat.okstate.edu under ‘wheat management’ then ‘grazing’
  • Image
The plant on the left is past first hollow stem and is jointing. The plant on the right is at first hollow stem

The plant on the left is past first hollow stem and is jointing. The plant on the right is at first hollow stem

First hollow stem update 03/18/2014

With the exception of Brawl CL Plus, Centerfield, and a few experimental lines all of the varieties in our plots at Stillwater are at first hollow stem. I have posted the measurements from 21 March 2014 below. 

Variety cm of hollow stem 03/21/2014
Endurance .
Deliver .
Pete .
OK Bullet .
OK Rising .
Billings .
Ruby Lee 2.4
Garrison .
Duster .
Gallagher .
Iba 2.6
Everest .
Jackpot .
Doans .
Greer .
CJ .
SY Southwind .
Sy Llano .
Armour .
WB-Cedar .
WB-Redhawk .
WB-Grainfield 3.7
Winterhawk .
WB4458 .
T153 .
T154 .
T158 1.5
LCS Mint 1.5
LCS Wizard .
LCH11-109 .
LCH11-1117 .
LCH11-1130 .
TAM 112 .
TAM 113 .
Byrd .
Brawl CL Plus 0.9
Centerfield 0.8
Doublestop CL Plus 1.9
OK09125 1.1
OK09520 .
OK10126 1.0
OK08707W-19C13 3.4
OK10805W 0.9
OK10728W .
OK11754WF .

First hollow stem update 03/18/2014

Most wheat varieties are now at first hollow stem in our plots at Stillwater. I have posted the measurements from 18 March 2014 below.

Variety cm of hollow stem 03/18/2014
Endurance 1.5
Deliver 1.5
Pete 1.7
OK Bullet 3.2
OK Rising 3.0
Billings 2.2
Ruby Lee 1.2
Garrison 1.9
Duster 2.0
Gallagher 3.1
Iba 1.1
Everest 3.6
Jackpot 4.6
Doans 1.9
Greer 1.7
CJ 2.6
SY Southwind 3.6
Sy Llano .
Armour 2.4
WB-Cedar .
WB-Redhawk 2.7
WB-Grainfield 1.3
Winterhawk 1.8
WB4458 1.7
T153 3.0
T154 2.1
T158 1.0
LCS Mint 0.2
LCS Wizard 1.5
LCH11-109 2.0
LCH11-1117 2.4
LCH11-1130 2.3
TAM 112 3.8
TAM 113 3.5
Byrd 2.0
Brawl CL Plus 1.0
Centerfield 0.9
Doublestop CL Plus 0.9
OK09125 1.3
OK09520 1.6
OK10126 0.6
OK08707W-19C13 1.3
OK10805W 1.2
OK10728W 3.3
OK11754WF .
Sample Average 2.1

First hollow stem update 03/14/2014

WB-Cedar and Sy Llano reached first hollow stem this week, and there are several additional early-maturing varieties that are near first hollow stem. The results from a March 13 sampling of plots are posted below, and we will post results from another sample early next week. I have also posted the map from the Oklahoma Mesonet’s First Hollow Stem Advisor for medium maturity varieties. As indicated in the map, most wheat south of I-40 is likely at or past first hollow stem.

Probability of first hollow stem for medium maturity wheat varieties on 03/14/14

Probability of first hollow stem for medium maturity wheat varieties on 03/14/14

 

First hollow stem works as a pull off date for cattle on wheat pasture because it allows the plant a small amount of time prior to jointing to recover some of the green leaf area lost to grazing. As evidenced by the results posted on this blog, first hollow stem is running a good 1.5 to 2 weeks later than normal. Given the situation, it is advisable to consider removing cattle from wheat pasture sooner rather than later. In many cases this would be before the occurrence of first hollow stem. I make this recommendation because once our temperatures start to warm, it is likely that that wheat phenological development will proceed in rapid fashion. We could easily encounter a situation where there are only a few days separating first hollow stem and jointing. Pulling cattle from wheat pasture a little early will allow extra time for recovery, which might be needed this year.

Variety cm of hollow stem 03/13/2014
Endurance 0.5
Deliver 0.7
Pete 1.4
OK Bullet 0.4
OK Rising 0.5
Billings 1.1
Ruby Lee 0.4
Garrison 0.6
Duster 0.1
Gallagher 0.8
Iba 0.3
Everest 1.0
Jackpot 1.1
Doans 0.8
Greer 0.4
CJ 1.1
SY Southwind 1.0
Sy Llano 1.5
Armour 1.0
WB-Cedar 1.7
WB-Redhawk 0.7
WB-Grainfield 0.1
Winterhawk 0.7
WB4458 0.8
T153 0.8
T154 0.9
T158 0.5
LCS Mint 0.2
LCS Wizard 0.4
LCH11-109 0.3
LCH11-1117 0.8
LCH11-1130 0.6
TAM 112 1.3
TAM 113 1.4
Byrd 0.4
Brawl CL Plus 0.6
Centerfield 0.1
Doublestop CL Plus 0.4
OK09125 0.5
OK09520 0.3
OK10126 0.0
OK08707W-19C13 1.4
OK10805W 0.3
OK10728W 1.2
OK11754WF .
Average 0.7

First hollow stem update 03/11/2014

With the exception of one experimental line, there are still no varieties at the first hollow stem stage of growth at Stillwater. The results from a March 10 sampling of plots are posted below, and we will post results from another sample later this week. First hollow stem works as a pull off date for cattle on wheat pasture because it allows the plant a small amount of time prior to jointing to recover some of the green leaf area lost to grazing. As evidenced by the results posted on this blog, first hollow stem is running a good 1.5 to 2 weeks later than normal.

Given the situation, it is advisable to consider removing cattle from wheat pasture sooner rather than later. In many cases this would be before the occurrence of first hollow stem. I make this recommendation because once our temperatures start to warm, it is likely that that wheat phenological development will proceed in rapid fashion. We could easily encounter a situation where there are only a few days separating first hollow stem and jointing. Pulling cattle from wheat pasture a little early will allow extra time for recovery, which might be needed this year.

Variety cm of hollow stem 03/10/2014
Endurance 0.16
Deliver 0.00
Pete 0.32
OK Bullet 0.15
OK Rising 0.15
Billings 0.60
Ruby Lee 0.13
Garrison 0.20
Duster 0.02
Gallagher 0.84
Iba 0.17
Everest 0.60
Jackpot 1.09
Doans 0.04
Greer 0.33
CJ 0.07
SY Southwind 0.57
Exp F14 0.86
Armour 1.00
WB-Cedar 0.97
WB-Redhawk 1.08
WB-Grainfield 0.09
Winterhawk 0.35
WB4458 0.40
T153 0.64
T154 0.37
T158 0.07
LCS Mint 0.29
LCS Wizard 0.00
LCH11-109 0.00
LCH11-1117 0.12
LCH11-1130 0.88
TAM 112 1.03
TAM 113 0.84
Byrd 0.62
Brawl CL Plus 0.00
Centerfield 0.00
Doublestop CL Plus 0.00
OK09125 0.08
OK09520 0.05
OK10126 0.00
OK08707W-19C13 0.55
OK10805W 0.00
OK10728W 0.24
OK11754WF 1.61
Average 0.40

First hollow stem update 03/05/2014

First hollow stem is the optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pasture (full explanation). We measure first hollow in our September-sown wheat forage plots at Stillwater each year, and normally have approximately 50% of varieties at or past first hollow stem by March 1st. I have posted first hollow stem measurements from these plots in a table at the end of this blog. No varieties are currently at first hollow stem at Stillwater, but I anticipate the small amount of moisture gained from recent snow and warming temperatures will spur onset of first hollow stem over the next week or so. We will take another set of measurements on March 10 and report the results on this blog.

Keep in mind that the numbers reported from Stillwater are likely behind those being observed in southern Oklahoma and ahead of those observed in northern Oklahoma. Dillon Butchee in the Altus area reported finding first hollow stem in Jagger last week. The First Hollow Stem Advisor on the Oklahoma Mesonet indicates that  early varieties in southern Oklahoma are likely past first hollow stem and that early varieties in central Oklahoma will reach this point within a week. Keep in mind the one week projection uses historical weather conditions which exceed our current forecast. Cooler than normal conditions will not last forever, though, and my advice is to move cattle off of wheat pasture in southern Oklahoma yesterday, start moving them off of wheat pasture in central Oklahoma today, and move cattle off wheat pasture in northern Oklahoma next week.

Probability of first hollow stem for early varieties 03/05/2014

Probability of first hollow stem for early varieties 03/05/2014

One week projected probability of first hollow stem for early varieties 03/05/2014

One week projected probability of first hollow stem for early varieties 03/05/2014

Variety cm of hollow stem 03/05/2014
Endurance 0.00
Deliver 0.00
Pete 0.24
OK Bullet 0.00
OK Rising 0.00
Billings 0.62
Ruby Lee 0.04
Garrison 0.22
Duster 0.00
Gallagher 0.39
Iba 0.00
Everest 0.29
Jackpot 0.12
Doans 0.00
Greer 0.31
CJ 0.02
SY Southwind 0.11
Exp F14 0.03
Armour 0.22
WB-Cedar 0.51
WB-Redhawk 0.66
WB-Grainfield 0.10
Winterhawk 0.09
WB4458 0.00
T153 0.00
T154 0.23
T158 0.02
LCS Mint 0.02
LCS Wizard 0.02
LCH11-109 0.11
LCH11-1117 0.10
LCH11-1130 0.16
TAM 112 0.14
TAM 113 0.77
Byrd 0.12
Brawl CL Plus 0.00
Centerfield 0.00
Doublestop CL Plus 0.03
OK09125 0.00
OK09520 0.03
OK10126 0.00
OK08707W-19C13 0.02
OK10805W 0.02
OK10728W 0.02
OK11754WF 0.77
Average 0.15